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ALBERUNI: India. An Account of the Religion, 
Philosophy, Literature, Geography, Chronology, 
Astronomy, Customs, Laws, and Astrology of India, 
about A.D. 1030. By Dr. Edwaed C. Sachau. 

BARTH (Dr. A.): The Religions of India. 

Authorised Translation by Rev. J. Wood. 

BIGANDET (B. P.) : Life OP Legend of Gaudama, 
the Buddha of the Burmese ; with Annota- 
tions, the Ways to Neibban, and Notice on the 
Phongyies or Burmese Monks. 

BEAL (Prof. S.): Life of Hiuen-Tsiang. By the 

Shamans Hwui Li and Yen-Tsung. With a 
Preface containing an Account of the Works of 

COWELL (Prof. E. B.): Sapva-Darsana-Sam- 

graha ; or, Review of the Different Systems of 
Hindu Philosopliy. By Madhava Acharya. 
Translated by Prof. E. B. Co well, M.A., and 
Prof. A. E. GOUGH, M.A. 

DOWSON (Prof. J.): Classical Dietionapy of 
Hindu Mythology and Religion, Geo- 
graphy, Histopy, and Literature. 

WEBER (Dr. A.) : Histopy of Indian Litepature. 

Translated by John Mann, M.A., and Theodore 
ZACHARlAE,'^Ph.D. Fourth Edition. 

Other Volumes to follow. 















New Edition, 1911 
Pojpular Re-issue, 1914 

The rights of translation and of rejaroduction are reserved 


Oknturies before biography became a business, before the 
peccadilloes of Eoyal mistresses and forgotten courtesans 
obtained a "market value/' the writing of the Master's 
life by some cherished disciple was both an act of love 
and piety in the Par East. The very footprints of the 
famous dead became luminous, and their shadows shone 
in dark caves that once withheld them from the wDrld. 
Memory looking back viewed them through a golden 
haze ; they were merged at last in ancient sunlight; they 
were shafts of God rayed in the tangled forests of time. 
In this spirit, then, the man of compassionate feeling 
(such is the rendering of the Sanscrit Shama), the Shaman 
Hwui~li, took up his tablets and wrote the life of Hiuen- 
Tsiang. The Master had already written his immortal 
Si-yu-hi or Eecord of Western Oonntries, yet the sixteen 
years of that wonderful quest in far-off India, of cities 
seen and shrines visited, of strange peoples and stranger 
customs, cannot be crowded into one brief record. And 
so we watch the patient disciple waiting on those intervals 
of leisure when the task of translation from Sanscrit into 
Chinese is laid aside, when the long routine of a Buddhist 
day is ended, waiting for the impressions of a wandering 
soul in the birthland of its faith. The Life is supplement 
to the Eecord. What is obscure or half told in the one 
is made clear in the other. 

Hwui-li begins in the true Chinese manner with a 
grand pedigree of his hero, tracing his descent from the 
Emperor Hwang Ti, the mythical Heavenly Emperor. 


This zeal for following the remotest ancestors over the 
borders of history into the regions of fable may be largely 
ascribed to a very human desire to connect the stream of 
life with its divine source. We are chiefly concerned to 
know that he came of a family which had already given 
notable men to the State, and was launched **in the 
troublous whirl of birth and death " but a little distance 
from the town of Kou-Shih, in the province of Honan, in 
the year 6oo A.D. Here and there biography leaves us a 
glimpse of his outward appearance as boy and man. We 
are told that **at his opening life he was rosy as the 
evening vapours and round as the rising moon. As a 
boy he was sweet as the odour of cinnamon or the vanilla 
tree." A soberer style does justice to his prime, and again 
he comes before us, " a tall handsome man with beauti- 
ful eyes and a good complexion. He had a serious but 
benevolent expression and a sedate, rather stately manner." 
The call of the West came early to Hiuen-Tsiang. From 
a child he had easily outstripped his fellows in the pur- 
suit of knowledge, and with the passing of the years he 
stepped beyond the narrow limits of Chinese Buddhism 
and found the deserts of Turkestan between him and the 
land of his dreams. Imperfect translations from the 
Sanscrit, the limited intelligence of the Chinese priest- 
hood, the sense of vast truths dimly perceived obscurely 
set forth, the leaven of his first Confucian training — all 
contributed to the making of a Buddhist pilgrim. The 
period of his departure, 629 A.D., was an eventful one for 
China. T'ai-Tsung, the most powerful figure of the 
brilliant T'ang dynasty, sat on the throne of his father 
Kaotsu, the founder of the line. The nomad Tartars, so 
long the terror of former dynasties, succumbed to his 
military genius, and Kashgaria was made a province of the 
Empire. Already the kingdom of Tibet was tottering to its 
fall, and Corea was to know the devastation of war within 
her boundaries. Ch'ang-an was now the capital, a city of 


floating pavilions and secluded gardens, destined to become 
the centre of a literary movement that would leave its 
mark for all time. But the days were not yet when the 
terraces of Teng-hiang-ting would see the butterflies 
alight on the flower-crowned locks of Yang-kuei-fei, or 
the green vistas re-echo to the voices of poet and emperor 
joined in praise of her. Only two wandering monks 
emerge furtively through the outer gates of the city's 
triple walls, and one of them looks back for a glimpse of 
Oh'ang-an, the last for sixteen eventful years of exile. 

Others had crossed the frontier before him, notably 
Fa-hian and Sung Yun, others in due course would come 
and go, leaving to posterity their impressions of a 
changing world, but this man stands alone, a prince of 
pilgrims, a very Bayard of Buddhist enthusiasm, fearless 
and without reproach. As we read on through the pages 
of Hwui-li the fascination of the Master of the Law 
becomes clear to us, not suddenly, but with the long, 
arduous miles that mark the way to India and the 
journey home. 

Take the Master's tattered robes, let the winds of Gobi 
whistle through your sleeve and cut you to the bone, 
mount his rusty red nag and set your face to the West. 
In the night you will see '* firelights as many as stars " 
raised by the demons and goblins ; travelling at dawn 
you will behold *' soldiers clad in fur and felt and the 
appearance of camels and horsemen and the glittering of 
standards and lances; fresh forms and figures changing 
into a thousand shapes, sometimes at an immense distance, 
then close at hand, then vanished into the void." The 
time comes when even the old red steed avails not, the 
Great Ice Mountains loom in front of you, and you crawl 
like an ant and cling like a fly to the roof of the world. 
Then on the topmost summit, still far away from the 
promised land, you realise two things — the littleness of 
human life, the greatness of one indomitable soul. 


But the superman is also very human. With the vast 
bulk of his encyclopgedic knowledge he falls on the pre- 
tentious monk Mokshagupta, he flattens him and treads a 
stately if heavy measure on his prostrate body. And 
withal clear-sighted and intolerant of shams, he is still a 
child of his age and religion. With childish curiosity he 
tempts a bone to foretell the future, and with childish 
delight obtains the answer he most desires. In the town 
of Hiddha is Buddha's skull bone, one foot long, two 
inches round. " If anyone wishes to know the indications 
of his guilt or his religious merit he mixes some powdered 
incense into a paste, which he spreads upon a piece of 
silken stuff, and tlien presses it on the top of the bone : 
according to the resulting indications the good fortune 
or ill fortune of the man is determined/' Hiuen obtains 
the impression of a Bodhi and is overjoyed, for, as the 
guardian Brahman of the bone explains, " it is a sure sign 
of your having a portion of true wisdom (Bodhi). ^' At 
another time he plays a kind of religious quoits by flinging 
garlands of flowers on the sacred image of Buddha, which, 
being caught on its hands and arms, show that his desires 
will be fulfilled. In simple faith he tells Hwui-li how 
Buddha once cleaned his teeth and flung the fragments 
of the wood with which he performed the act on the 
ground ; how they took root forthwith, and how a tree 
seventy feet high was the consequence. And Hiuen saw 
that tree, therefore the story must be true. 

But it is not with the pardonable superstitions of a 
human soul of long ago that we need concern ourselves. 
The immense latent reserve, the calm strength to persist, 
is the appeal. It comes to us with no note of triumph for 
the thing accomplished or the obstacle removed, but rather 
underlies some simple statement of fact and is summed 
up in these few trite words : " We advanced guided by 
observing the bones left on the way." The little inci- 
dents of life and death are as nothing to one who looks 


on all men as ghosts haunted by reality. And so the 
Master of the Law resigns himself to the prospect of a 
violent end at the hands of the river pirates of the 
Ganges, to the miraculous interposition of a timely storm, 
with the same serenity with which he meets the long 
procession streaming out of N^landa in his honour, with 
its two hundred priests and some thousand lay patrons 
who surround him to his entry, recounting his praises, 
and carrying standards, umbrellas, flowers, and perfumes. 

Yet there are moments of sheer delight when scenes 
of physical beauty are fair enough to draw even a 
Buddhist monk from his philosophic calm, when even 
Hiuen-Tsiang must have become lyrical in the presence 
of his recording disciple. Who would not be the guest 
of the abbot of N&landa monastery with its six wings, 
each built by a king, all enclosed in the privacy of 
solid brick? "One gate opens into the great college, 
from which are separated eight other halls, standing in 
the middle (of the monastery). The richly adorned towers, 
and the fairy-like turrets, like pointed hilltops, are con- 
gregated together. The observatories seem to be lost 
in the mists (of the morning), and the upper rooms tower 
above the clouds. 

"From the windows one may see how the winds and 
the clouds produce new forms, and above the soaring 
eaves the conjunctions of the sun and moon may be 

" And then we may add how the deep, translucent ponds 
bear on their surface the blue lotus intermingled with the 
Kanaka flower, of deep red colour, and at intervals the 
Amra groves spread over all, their shade. 

"All the outside courts, in which are the priests' 
chambers, are of four stages. The stages have dragon- 
projections and coloured eaves, the pearl-red pillars, 
carved and ornamented, the richly adorned balustrades, 
and the roofs covered with tiles that reflect the light in 


a thousand shades, these things add to the beauty of the 

Here ten thousand priests sought refuge from the 
world of passing phenomena and the lure of the senses. 

Wherever our pilgrim goes he finds traces of a worship 
far older than Buddhism. He does not tell us so in so 
many words, yet underneath the many allusions to Bodhi- 
trees and Nagas we may discover the traces of that 
primitive tree and serpent worship that still exists in 
remote corners of India, as, for instance, among the Naga 
tribes of Manipur who worship the python they have 
killed. In Hiuen's time every lake and fountain had 
its Naga-raja or serpent-king, Buddha himself, as we 
learn from both the Si-yu-hi and the Life, spent much 
time converting or subduing these ancient gods. There 
were Nagas both good and evil. When Buddha first 
sought enlightenment he sat for seven days in a state of 
contemplation by the waters of a little woodland lake. 
Then this good Naga " kept guard over Tathagata ; with 
his folds seven times round the body of the Buddha, he 
caused many heads to appear, which overshadowed him 
as a parasol ; therefore to the east of this lake is the 
dwelling of the Naga." In connection with this legend 
it is interesting to remember that Vishnu is commonly 
represented as reposing in contemplation on the seven- 
headed snake. Even after the passing of the Buddha the 
Nagas held their local sway, and King Asoka is foiled in 
his attempt to destroy the Naga's stiXjpa, for, " having seen 
the character of the place, he was filled with fear and 
said, 'All these appliances for worship are unlike any- 
thing seen by men.' The Naga said, * If it be so, would 
that the king would not attempt to destroy the stiXpa ! ' 
The king, seeing that he could not measure his power 
with that of the Naga, did not attempt to open the st'&'pa 
(to take out the relics)." In many instances we find the 
serpent gods not merely in full possession of their ancient 


haunts, but actually posing as the allies and champions of 
the new faith and its founder. In the Si-yvr-Jd we are 
told that " by the side of a pool where Tath§.gata washed 
his garments is a great square stone on which are yet to 
be seen the trace-marks of his robe. ... The faithful 
and pure frequently come to make their offerings here ; 
but when the heretics and men of evil mind speak lightly 
of or insult the stone, the dragon-king (Naga-rSja) 
inhabiting the pool causes the winds to rise and rain 
to fall." 

The connection between Buddhism and tree- worship is 
even closer still. The figure of the Master is for ever 
reclining under the B6dhi-tree beneath whose shade he 
dreamed that he had "the earth for his bed, the Hima- 
layas for his pillow, while his left arm reached to the 
Eastern Ocean, his right to the Western Ocean, and his 
feet to the great South Sea." This B6dhi-tree is the 
Mens Religiosa or peepul tree, and is also known as 
Karasvit or the tree of wisdom and knowledge. The 
leaves are heart-shaped, slender and pointed, and con- 
stantly quivering. In the Si-yu-hi it is stated of a 
certain Bodhi-tree that although the leaves wither not 
either in winter or summer, but remain shining and 
glistening throughout the year, yet "at every succes- 
sive NiTvdna-Adi,j (of the Buddhas) the leaves wither and 
fall, and then in a moment revive as before." The 
Buddha sat for seven days contemplating this tree ; "he 
did not remove his gaze from ifc during this period, 
desiring thereby to indicate his grateful feelings towards 
the tree by so looking at it with fixed eyes." Hiuen- 
Tsiang himself and his companions contributed to the 
universal adoration of the tree, for, as that impeccable 
Buddhist the Shaman Hwui-li rather baldly states, 
"they paid worship to the Bodhi-tree." 

How did Buddhism come to be connected in any way 
with tree and serpent worship ? The answer is, through 


its connection with Bralimanism. As Buddhism was 
Brahmanism reformed, so Brahmanism in its turn was 
the progressive stage of tree and serpent worship. Siva 
the destroyer is also Nag Bhushan, *' he who wears snakes 
as his ornaments." Among the lower classes in many 
districts the worship of the serpent frequently supplants 
or is indistinguishable from the worship of Siva. In 
the Panma Purana, the Bodhi-tree is the tree aspect 
of Vishnu, the Indian fig-tree of Pudra, and the Palasa 
tree of Brahma. Again, Vishnu is also Hari the Preserver 
— Hari who sleeps upon a coiled serpent canopied by its 
many heads. The Laws of Manu lay down the worship 
to be offered both to the water-gods (Nagas) and the 
tree spirits : — '' Having thus, with jQxed attention, offered 
clarified butter in all quarters ... let hira offer his 
gifts to animated creatures, saying, I salute the Maruts 
or Winds, let him throw dressed rice near the door, 
saying, I salute the water-gods in water; and on his 
pestle and mortar, saying, I salute the gods of large 

The tree and the serpent coiled at its roots are the 
two essential symbols of primitive religion, whether the 
tree is the peepul and the serpent a Naga-raja, or the 
serpent be the Tiamat of the Babylonians and the tree 
the date-palm. There are the serpent-guarded fruits 
of the Hesperides ; there is the serpent beneath the tree 
of knowledge in the garden, or rather grove, of Eden; 
there is Yggdrasill, the sacred ash tree of Norse myth- 
ology, with Nidhogg the great serpent winding round its 
roots. The first mysteries of religion were celebrated in 
groves, as those of Asher and Baal and the groves of the 
early Eomans. 

Serpent-worship has universally been the symbol- 
worship of the human desire for life, the consequent 
reproduction of the species, and hence the immortality 
of the race. To-day the barren women of Bengal pay 


reverence to the person of the Naga mendicant. But 
the worship of trees takes its rise from the emotions of 
primseval man, inspired in the forest. Fear and awe 
and the passions all dwelt in its shade. The first god 
of man emerging from the animal is Pan, and his the 
woodnote that, calling through the sacred grove, causes 
the new-found conscience to start and the guilty to 
hide their shame. 

But in pointing out the survivals of ancient faith so 
naiLvely testified to by Hiuen-Tsiang, I have intended no 
disparagement to the gentle, compassionate Master of the 
Eastern World. Buddha could not have planted any tree 
that the jungles of India would not have swiftly strangled 
in one tropic night. He sought for Brahmanism, that 
giant of the grove, the light and air for which it pined, he 
cleared the creepers that would have closed it in, he cut 
away the dead and dying branch and gave the tree of 
ancient faith its chance of attainment. And if he left 
the old wise Nagas to their woodland lakes, or paid silent 
recognition to the spirit of the B6dhi-tree, who shall 
blame him? Man the primitive, with his fresh mind 
brought to bear upon the mysteries around him, with all 
senses alert to catch the rhythmic pulses of life and view 
the silent growth that soared beyond him, with his ima- 
gination unfettered and his garb of convention as yet 
unsewn, was nearer to the great dawn than all the book- 
bound philosophers that followed him. 

But Hiuen-Tsiang or Yiian Chwang, for such is the 
latest rendering of his name in the modern Pekinese, was 
born into a world that beheld the tree of Buddhism slowly 
dying from the top. He bore witness, if unconsciously, to 
a time of transition and a noble faith in decay , and the 
swift, silent growth of jungle mythology around the 
crumbling temples of Buddha. His record of these six- 
teen years of travel is a priceless one, for through it we 
are able to reconstruct the world and ways of Buddhist 


India of the centuries that have passed. Yet far more 
priceless still is that record, read between the lines, of a 
human soul dauntless in disaster, unmoved in the hour of 
triumph, counting the perils of the bone-strewn plain and 
the unconquered hills as nothing to the ideal that lay 
before him, the life-work, the call of the Holy Himalayas 
and the long toil of his closing years. It is difficult to 
over-estimate his services to Buddhist literature. He re- 
turned to his own country with no less than 657 volumes 
of the sacred books, seventy-four of which he translated 
into Chinese, while 150 relics of the Buddha, borne by 
twenty horses, formed the spoil reverently gathered from 
the many lands we call India. 

And so we leave him to his rest upon Mount Sumeru, 
where once his venturous soul alighted in the dreams of 
youth, with the serpents coiled beneath its base, with its 
seven circling hills of gold and the seven seas between, 
and the great salt ocean encompassing them all. There, 
as Mr. Watters has finely said, " he waits with Maitreya 
until in the fulness of time the latter comes into this 
world. With him Yuan-chuang hoped to come back to 
a new life here and to do again the Buddha's work for 
the good of others." Till then we leave him to the long 
interval of bliss transcending all planes of human ecstasy, 

" Around his dreams the dead leaves fall ; 
Calm as the starred chrysanthemum 
He notes the season glories come, 
And reads the hooks that never pall." 


May i6th, 191 1. 


[For a detailed Index of Proper Names the reader is o^ef erred to the Second 
Volume of the " Records of the Western 'World.'^'\ 


Begins with the {birth of Hiuen-Tsiang) im, Kow-shif and ends with the 
account of his arrival at Kau- Chang, 

Birth and parentage of Hiuen-Tsiang — Family of Hiuen-Tsiang — Resides 
at Loyang — Admitted as a recluse — Removes to Shing-Tu — Famine 
and riot in the Empire — Leaves Shing-Tu — Passes the gorges — 
Resolves to travel to the West — His mother's dream — Starts on his 
journey — Liang- Chow — Assisted by the governor of Kwa-Ohow — 
Dream of Dharma, a priest — Engages a guide — Arrives at the Yuh- 
men barrier — Traverses the desert — Illusions of the desert — Reaches 
the first watch-tower — The fourth watch-tower — Loses the track — 
Exhausted by thirst — Advances towards I-gu — Arrives at I-gu — The 
king exhorts him to remain — Refuses to remain — The king uses 
threats — ^The king persists in his efforts — The king relents — The 
king's presents — Hiuen-Tsiang's acknowledgments — Hiuen-Tsiang's 
letter — Hiuen-Tsiang's further acknowledgments — His departure to 
the West ••.....•«• Pp. 1-34 

BOOK 11. 

Commencing with O-ki-nii and endvng with Kie-jo-hio-she {Kana/uj). 

Arrives at 0-ki-ni — Crosses the Silver Mountain — Arrives at K'ui-chi — 
Departs for the Temple of 0-she-li-ni — Discussion with Mokshagupta 
— He encounters Turkish robbers — The Muzart Pass — Meets Yeh-hu, 
the Khan of the Turks — Reception by the Khan — Receives from the 
Khan a set of vestments — Arrives at Ping-yu — The worship of the 


Turks — Receives many Turks into the priesthood — Intrigues at 
Kunduz — Sramana named Dharmasinha — The Navasangharama — 
The two Sttipas at Po-li — Jumadha and Juzgana — Enters the great 
Snowy Mountains — Passes the Snowy Mountains — Arrives at Bd- 
miy^n — Relics of Sanakavasa — The Temple of Sha-lo-kia — The con- 
cealed treasure — Finds the treasure — ^Arrives at Lamghan — History 
of Dipafikara Buddha — Relics at Hidda — The cave of Nagaraja 
Oop^a — The Gave of the Shadow — Beholds the Shadow — Sttipa built 
by Kanishka — ^A statue of white stone — Arrives at the town of 
Utakhanda — Enters the country of U-chang-na — The river Subha- 
v^stu — The fountain of Apalala — The wooden statue of Maitreya 
Bodhisattva — Bodhisattva born as Chandraprabha — Temple of XJ-sse- 
kia-lo (Hushkara) — Arrives at the capital of Kasmir- Explains various 
S^stras — The Council of Kanishka — S^stras engraved on copper — 
Attacked by brigands — The forest of amra trees — Arrives at the 
kingdom of Tcheka — Converts the heretics — Resides in the convent 
of Tu-she-sa-na — Reaches Mathura — The River Ganges — The San- 
gharama of Gunaprabha — Sanghabhadra composes the Kosha-Karika 
S§,stra — The ladders of Kapitha — Arrives at Kie-jo-kio-she-kwo 
(Kanaij) — Saladitya Harshavardhana — Resides at the Bhadra 
Vih^ra Pp. 35-84 


Asangha's ascent to heaven — His brother Vasubandhu — Attacked by 
brigands — Prepared as a sacrifice — His miraculous escape — Conver- 
sion of the brigands — The field of Great Beneficence — Buddha's ascent 
into heaven — Arrives at the kingdom of ^r^vastl — Sacred spots at 
Sr^vasti — The Vih&ra Sanghdr^ma — Kapilavastu — The Nc^ga tank 
— Kusinagara— The " Stag-desert " — Sacred spots at Banaras — Ar- 
rives at the kingdom of Ohen-chu (Ghazipur) — Pataliputtra Pura — 
The stone upon which Buddha stood after leaving V4isall — The Bod- 
himanda — The B6dhi-tree— Enters Nalanda — Salutes Ching-fa-tsong 
(Silabadra) — Pays worship to Maitreya B6dhisattva — Provisions 
at Nalanda — The Nalanda monastery — Structure of Nalanda — The 
Sanghdr&mas of India — Srigupta — Bamboo garden of Karanda — The 
first convocation — Ananda repeats the Sfitras — Bimbasara's decree 
— Jydtishka, the nobleman — The Hamsa convent — The image of Ava- 
16kitMvara — Origin of Indian letters — Vy^karanam treatises — San- 
skrit grammar — The Subanta "sound (endings") — Arrives at the 
Kapotika convent — Offers flowers and vows to the figure of Avalo- 
kitesvara —Buildings at Hiranya Pp. 85-127 



Arrives at OhampS, — The fairy fruit — Karnasuvarna — Arrives at Sama- 
tata — Green jade figure of Buddha — Simhala — Tooth of Buddha — 
Deva Bodhisattva — The kingdom of Dhanakataka — Bhavaviveka — 
Birthplace of Dharmap^la Bddhisattva — Priests from Ceylon — The 
Chandaneva tree— The Lion-king — Death of the Lion-king — The 
Western women — Padmaraga jewel — Lankagiri— -Arrives at Maha- 
rashtra — Maharashtra — King SilS,ditya of Ujjain arrives at Vallabhi 
— The country of Po-la-sse — Arrives at Sindh — TJ-ga-tsun (The Sun- 
god) — The Kshattriya Jayasena — The dream of Hiuen-Tsiang — The 
Sarira miracle — Composes a S^stra called Hwui-Tsung — The Sky- 
flower doctrine — Letter sent to Stlabhadra — The Lokatiya dis- 
putant — The heretics called Sankhyas and others — The Sankhya 
system — The heretics are overcome — Kumara-raja . Pp. 128-165 


Nirgrantha skilled in divination — The resolve to return — Silabhadra 
approves —Silabhadra receives the letter — Proceeds to Kumara-raja 
— Arrives at Kie-shu-ho-ki-lo — Siladitya-raja, and the king of Ts'in — 
Interview with Siladitya — Sammatiya-school doctrine — Ceremonial 
at meeting-place — An offering to Buddha — The challenge of Hiuen- 
Tsiang — The tooth of Buddha — The sick elephant — Conclusion of 
the Assembly — Arrives at the kingdom of Po-lo-ye-kia — The Arena 
of Charity— Bestowal of gifts — He delays his return — Takes his 
departure — Arrives at Pi-lo-na-na — Crosses the Indus — The king of 
Kapisa proceeds homewards — Arrives at Kunduz — Habits of the 
people of Hi -mo-ta-lo— Reaches Sambhi — The Central Lake — Kuma- 
ralabdha — Meets with robbers — The entranced Arhat — Kustana — The 
country of Kashgar — ^^Figure of Buddha-r- Arrives at Khotan — The 
Arhat from Kai^mir — The first Sangharama — Memorial for books — 
Letter sent to Ko-chang — Receives letters of instructions — The 
Takla Makdn desert— Sends letter to the Emperor . Pp. 166-212 


Arrives at the capital — Begins to translate the Sanscrit books he had 
brought— Resides at a temple called Si-ming — Death of the pilgrim 
— Is buried in the Western capital — His remains afterwards 
removed Pp. 213-218 





I. The present volume is intended to supplement the 
"History of the Travels of Hiuen-Tsiang " {Si-yu-hi)^ 
already published by Messrs. Trtibner in two volumes, 
and entitled '' Buddhist Eecords of the Western World." 

The original from which the translation is made is 
styled "History of the Master of the Law of the three 
Pitakas of the * Great Loving-Kindness ' Temple," It was 
written, probably in five chapters, in the first instance 
by Hwui-li, one of Hiuen-Tsiang's disciples, and afterwards 
enlarged and completed in ten chapters by Yen-thsong, 
another of his followers.^ Yen-thsong was selected by 
the disciples of Hwui-li to re-arrange and correct the 
leaves which their master had written and hidden in a 
cave. He added an introduction and five supplementary 
chapters. The five chapters added by Yen-thsong are 
probably those which follow the account of Hiuen-Tsiang's 
return from India, and relate to his work of translation in 
China. I have not thought it necessary to reproduce 

i Julien^ Preface to the Life of Hiouen-Tsiang, p. Ixxix, 


this part of the original ; my object has been simply to 
complete the "Eecords" already published relating to 

2. It will be found that Hwui-li's history often explains 
or elucidates the travels of Hiuen-Tsiang. Yen-thsong 
evidently consulted other texts or authorities. This is 
especially the case in reference to the history of the 
Temple of !N^landa, in the third chapter of the book, com- 
pared with the ninth book of the " Kecords." ^ 

3. I may also notice the interesting statement found in 
the fourth book, referring to King Sadvaha (So-fo-po-ho), 
and the rock temple he excavated for NS^g^rjuna.^ 

N§.g§;rjuna is now believed to have flourished as late as 
100 years after Kanishka,^ i.e., towards the end of the 
second century A.D. This would also be the date of 
Sadvaha. Who this king was is not certain. He is said 
to have reigned over Shing-tu, which may simply mean 
India. He was surnamed Shi-yen-to-Jcia (Sindhuka?). 
He probably had resided on the Indus, and by conquest 
had got possession of the Southern K6sala. Was he a 
Pallava ? and was Alamana, where Nag^rjuna knew him, 
the same as Aramana on the Coromandel Coast, between 
Chola and Kalinga ? ^ Be that as it may, we know^ that 
]S[§>g§.rjuna was so closely acquainted with the king that 

1 With respect to Tath^gata-K^ja, 2 j think it is ahundantly clear 

e.g.i^he phrase used in the original from the evidence of Chinese tradi- 

does not mean ^' /lis S07?," but "Ms tions that the Patriarch N^^rjuna 

direct descendant," and this goes far and the Bhikshu N^gasena (who dis- 

to reconcile this account with that puted with Menander) are distinct 

found in the Si-yu-Jci. persons. The first (as I have shown 

Again, with reference to the remark in some papers written for the In- 

of Hwui-li found on page 112 infra, dian Antiquary) was an innovator, 

that the N&landa monastery was and more or less given to magical 

founded 700 years before the time practices ; the latter was a learned 

of Hiuen-Tsiang, this, as I have ob- Bhikshu engrossed in metaphysical 

served (in the note), clears up the date studies. 

of iSakr^ditya, who is described as a ^ ^q gays Taou-Siin in his history 

former king of the country, living of the S^kya family, 

after the NirvA,na of Buddha ; the ^ For some remarks on this point, 

expression "not long after," found in vide Indian Antiquary, May 1888, 

the Si-yu-Jd, must be accepted loosely, p. 126, c. i. Cf, also Schiefner's 

The foundation of the convent would Taranatha, p. 303. 
be about 80 B.o, 


he sent him a friendly letter exhorting him to morality of 
life and religious conduct. The iviiig in return prepared 
the cave-dwelling for him of which we have the history in 
the tenth book of the " Eecords.'* This cave-dwelling was 
hewn in a mountain called Po4o-mo-lo-hi4i, i.e., Bhra- 
mar^iri, the mountain of the BlacJc hee (Durg^).^ 

Dr. Burgess has identified this mountain with the cele- 
brated Sri Sailas, bordering on the river Kistna, called by 
Schiefner Qri-Parvata. Doubtless it is the same as that 
described by Ta-hian in the 35th chapter of his travels. 
He calls it the Po-lo-yue Temple, which he explains as 
" the Pigeon " (Fdrdvat) monastery. But a more probable 
restoration of the Chinese symbols would be the Farvati, 
or the Farvata, monastery. The symbol yue in Chinese 
Buddhist translations is equivalent to va (or vat).^ 

We may theref5re assume that the Fo-lo-yue monastery 
of Fa-hian was the DurgS, monastery of Hiuen-Tsiang, 
otherwise called ^ri-parvata. This supposition is con- 
firmed by the actual history of the place; for Hiuen- 
Tsiang tells us that after the Buddhists had established 
themselves in the monastery, the Brahmans by a stratagem 
took possession of it. Doubtless, when in possession, they 
would give it a distinctive name acceptable to themselves ; 
hence the terms Bhramar^ or Bhramar^mba. 

4. With respect to Fa-hian's restoration of Fo-lo-yue to 

1 M.. Julien restores these symbols speaks of the Brack-bee Mountain, 

to Baramoulagiri, and accex^s the in- using the symbol "fung," "a bee," 

terpretation given by Hiuen-Tsiang, for "fung," "apeak." 

viz., "the black peak." Before I 2 Thus in Fa-hian's account of the 

had been able to consult any parallel five-yearly religiousassembly{Pa77c/ia- 

record I was satisfied that this re- vassa-parishad), the Chinese symbols 

storation was wrong, and in a paper are pan-cha-yue-sse (Moui), where yue 

read before the Royal Asiatic Society, evidently corresponds to va. Again, 

J. B. A. S., vol. XV. part 3, I ven- throughout Taou-Siin's work on the 

tured to assert that the Chinese char- history of the S^kyas, the symbols 

acter "fung," "apeak," was a mis- for Chakkavat are cha-ka-yue, where 

take for "fung," "abee," and that the again yue is equivalent to vat. And 

name of the hill was Bhramar^giri, so again, when Taou-Siin describes the 

i.e., the hill of the "Black -bee" or of inhabitants of Vais^li in the time of 

Durg^. I was gratified some months Buddha, he always calls them yue- 

afterwards to find in Taou-Siin a com- chi, i.e., Vajjis or Vatis (the symbol 

plete confirmation of my opinion, as chi is used for ti, as'in Kiu-chi for 

he in his account of this district Koti). 


Par§,vata, " a pigeon," there need be no difficulty. It may 
have been called the " Pigeon monastery " in pre-Brahman 
times. The highest storey was probably decorated with 
pigeon-emblems/ or, like the top beams of the gateways 
at Sanchi, adorned with the trisul emblem. This emblem, 
in all probability, originally denoted the three rays of the 
rising sun.^ These three rays, by the addition of a simple 
stroke at the base, were converted into a representation of a 
descending pigeon or dove. This would be sufficient to 
account for the name the Pigeon monastery. But there 
is no need to press this matter ; for whether the symbol 
yue be equal to va or vat, in this particular case, there 
can be no doubt as to its true restoration. 

5. This remark leads me to allude briefly to the people 
named Yue-chi or Yue-ti in Chinese Buddhist litera- 
ture. There is frequent mention made of the Yue-chi 
in Chinese books "previous to the Turushka invasion of 
North-West India, by the predecessors of Kanishka. The 
inhabitants of Vaisalt are, e.g., in Buddha's lifetime, called 

These people we know were Vajjis or Vatis ; * they are 
represented as a proud and arrogant race, and remarkable 
for personal display and the equipment of their chariots.^ 
I should argue then that as the Amardi are called 
Mardi, and the Aparni are called Parni, so the Vatis were 
the same as the Avatis. But in the Scythic portion of 
the Behistun inscription we have distinct mention of the 
Afartis or Avartis as the people who inhabited the high 
lands bordering on Media and the south shores of the 
Caspian. Were the Vajjis or Vatis, then, a people allied to 

1 I cannot suppose that he meant 3 Yiz., in many passages in the 
to say that the different storeys were works of Sang-yui and Taou-Siin. 
constructed in the sAope of the animals * The symbol chi is convertible 
denoted, but that they "v^ere decorated with ti (as before noticed). 

by emblems of these animals. ^ I have called attention to the 

2 Of. the figure of Mithra in Dr. equipment, &c., of the Lidchavis in 
Bruce's Itinerarium Septentrional e, vol. xix.. Sacred Books of the East, -p. 
and also "Abstract of Four Lectures," 257, n. 2. 

p. 159, 


these Medes or Scyths, who at an early date had invaded 
India ? The question at any rate is worth considera- 

6. Arising from this is a still more interesting inquiry, 
although perhaps more speculative, touching the origin 
of the name "Licchavis/' given to the inhabitants of 
Vai^^ll. Mr. Hodgson speaks of these people as Scy ths ; ^ 
and if we remember that the Vajjians, otherwise Licchavis, 
were a foreign people, and throughout their history re- 
garded as imbelievers, having chaityas consecrated to 
Yakshas, &c., it will not be unreasonable to derive their 
name from the Scythic race known as Kavis or Kahis, 
by whose aid Feridun was placed on the throne of Persia.^ 
These Kams or Kalis were unbelievers,^ and their black- 
smith's flag,^ which was adopted by the Persians as their 
national banner, was finally taken and perhaps destroyed by 
the Arabs, Is the flag (Plate xxviii. fig. i, Tree and SeT;pent 
Worship) this flag of the Kavis ? There is another scene 
in which a similar flag may be observed (surmounted, as 
the former, by a trisul), I mean in Plate xxxviii. If this 
Plate represents the siege of Ku^inagara by the Vajjis, 
to recover a portion of the relics of Buddha, then the 
procession on the left, in which the relic-casket is carried 
off in triumph, accompanied by the flag, is probably in- 
tended to represent the Vajjians proceeding to Vai^^lt for 
the purpose of enshrining the relics, as already noticed 
and represented in Plate xxviii. 

7. But again, the followers of the Turushka invaders 
under Kanishka and his predecessors were deeply im- 
bued with Zoroastrian conceptions, as is evident from their 
coins,^ and these too were Yue-chi or Vatis. They must 
have derived their Zoroastrian proclivities from residence 

j^ In confirmation, I would again s of. Sir H. Rawlinson, J. E. A. S. , 

refer to the testimony of the sculp- xv. p. 258. 

tures at Sanchi; vide my short and * "Blind heretics;" vide Zenda- 

uncorrected paper, J. R. A. S. , Jan- vesta by Darmesteter and Mills, pass. 

uary 1882. 5 Derefsh-i-Kavani. 

2 Collected Essays, Triibner's edi- ^ yidg paper by M. Aurel Stein, 

tion, p. 17. Ind. Antiq., April 1888. 


among, or connection with, people professing this religion ; 
and so again we argue that these Yue-chi or Kushans ^ 
were a Northern people from the borders of the Caspian. 
The entire argument appears to be confirmed by the fact 
that Hiuen-Tsiang ^ places a district called Vati in this 
very neighbourhood, where also dwelt the Mardi, a term 
equivalent to Afarti or Avati, as already shown by 

8. This leads me to observe, lastly, that the plates in 
" Tree and Serpent Worship," in which N&gas and their 
female attendants are represented as worshipping the vari- 
ous thrones or seats on which was supposed to reside the 
spiritual presence of Buddha, do in fact denote the effect 
of the preaching of the Master on these emigrant Medes 
or Afartis. The Medes, as is well known, were called 
Mars, ie.j Snakes; and in the Vendidad, Ajis Dahaka, 
*' the biting snake," is the personification of Media. When, 
therefore, Buddha converted the people of Vai^ali and the 
Mallas of Ku^inagara (who were Kushans),^ the success 
of his teaching was denoted in these sculptures by repre- 
senting the !N"^gas (remarkable for their beauty, as were 
the Medes) in the act of paying worship before him, as 
he was supposed to be spiritually present on the seats 
or thrones in places he had occupied during his career 
in the world. 

It will be sufficient for my purpose if these remarks 
lead to a consideration of the point as to the probability 
of an early migration (or, perhaps, dejportation) of a nor- 
thern people allied to the Medes into India, who made 
Vai^alt their capital. 

9. There is an interesting point to be noticed respect- 
ing the council of Patna under Asoka. On page 102 of 

1 The Kushans are constantly men- caUed in Chinese Lih-sse, i.e., Strong- 
tioned by Ferdusi as the aboriginal lords. But does the symbol lih cor- 
race of Media. J. K, A. S., xv. ^. 205 ; respond with the Accadian lik or lig, 
vide p. 46, infra, n. 5. a lion? In this case we should gather 

2 Records, vol. i. p. 35. that the Licchavis were lik + Kavis, 
5 It is curious that the Mallas are i.e., powerful, or lion, Kavis. 


the translation following, it will be observed that A^&ka 
is said to have convened looo priests in the Kukkut- 
S,rama, i,e,, the " Garden of the cock." By comparing this 
passage with Dipavaihsa, vii. 57, 58, 59, it will be plain 
that this convent is the same as the AsokS-rama, and that 
the allusion in my text is to the third council at Patna.^ 
But it appears from the corresponding account in the 
Si-yu-hi^ that the members of this council were all 
Sthaviras or Theras, and therefore that it did not include 
any members of the other schools. We may hence 
understand why this council takes such a leading place 
in the records of the Ceylonese Buddhist Church, but is 
almost entirely ignored in the Northern books. 

II. I come now to notice very briefly the records left 
us by I-tsing respecting other pilgrims after Hiuen-Tsiang, 
who, leaving China or neighbouring places, visited sacred 
spots in India consecrated by association with Buddha's 
presence or connected with his history. 

I. It will be remembered that Hiuen-Tsiang returned to 
China after his sojourn in India in the year 645 A.D., and 
that he died in the year 664 a.d. It was just after this 
event, viz., in the year 671 or 6j2, that I-tsing, then a 
mere stripling, resolved, with thirty-seven other disciples 
of Buddha, to visit the Western world to pay reverence 
to the sacred vestiges of their religion. Taking ship at 
Canton, he found himself deserted by his companions, and 
so proceeded alone by what is known as the southern 
sea-route to India. This route, as we shall notice here- 
after, was by way of Condore ^ to Sribhoja {Falerribang^ in 

1 Records, <fec., vol. ii. p. 96.* as interpreting this language at ^ri- 

2 It is curious to find that the in- bhoja. Wq learn too from other 
habitants of the Condore Islands at sources that these Condore negroes 
this time were of the Negro type, with were largely used as servants or slaves 
thick woolly hair, and that their Ian- at Canton and Southern Oliina about 
guage was used in all the neighbouring this time, 

districts. I-tsing speaks of himself 

* The expression cJiief-priesis, on tbe page referred to, is equal to Sthaviras, 


Sumatra), and thence to Quedah ; then to Nagapatam and 
Ceylon, or by way of Arakan and the coast of Burmah to 
Tamralipti {Tatta)^ where stood a famous temple called 
VarS-ha {the wild hoar), in which most of the pilgrims 
stopped awhile to study Sanskrit. It was in this temple 
that I-tsing translated the " friendly letter " which Mg^r- 
juna had composed and sent to his patron King Sadvaha. 
He dwelt here for three years. 

After visiting more than thirty countries, I-tsing re- 
turned to Sribhoja, from which place, having accidentally 
missed his passage in a homeward-bound ship, he sent one 
of his treatises, viz., his "History of the Southern Sea 
Religious (Law) Practices," in four chapters, to China {the 
inner land), and himself remained for some time longer at 
Sribhoja. Finally, he returned to Honan towards the close 
of the seventh century A.D. (viz., 693-694 A.D.), bringing 
with him nearly 400 distinct volumes of original copies of 
the Siitras and the Vinaya and Abhidharma Scriptures. 
He translated during the years 700-703 A.D. twenty 
volumes, and afterwards in 705 A.D. four other works. 
Altogether, between the years 700-712 a.d. he translated 
(with others) fifty-six distinct works in 250 chapters. Of 
these, the Kau-fd-^kao-sang-chuen (in two parts) is an 
account of fifty-six priests or Buddhist converts who 
visited India and the neighbourhood from China and 
bordering districts during the latter half of the seventh 
century A.D. A part of these pilgrims proceeded by 
the southern sea-route, and a part across the deserts and 
mountains by the northern route to India. With re- 
spect to the former, I will call attention to the incident 
recorded on p. 188 of the present work, from which we 
gather that this route was known and used at any rate 
as early as Hiuen-Tsiang's time. And it would appear 
that Bha^^aravarman, the king of Kamarupa, and pro- 
bably former kings of that kingdom, had this sea-route 
to China under their special protection. In fact, so early 


as the time of Fa-hian it appears to have been well 
established, as he returned from Ceylon to China by sea. 
We learn from I-tsing's account that in his time there was 
a flourishing mercantile and religious establishment on 
the coast of Sumatra, probably on the site of the present 
Palembang (as before suggested), where the merchants 
were accustomed to find shelter and ship their spices for 
Canton. I have alluded to this point in the Journal 
of the Eoyal Asiatic Society, October 1881, and also in 
Trtibner's Record ; there is no need therefore to repeat the 
arguments in this place. But I will place down here a 
brief resume of I-tsing's notices concerning some of these 
pilgrims, in the order of his book, referred to above. 


{Nanj. Gat. 1491.) 

III. The author in the preface having alluded to the 
journeys of Fa-hian and Hiuen-Tsiang, who proceeded to 
the western countries to procure books and pay reverence 
to the sacred relics, passes on to notice the hardships and 
dangers of the route, and the difficulty of finding shelter 
or entertainment in the different countries visited by their 
successors, pilgrims to the same spots, and that in con- 
sequence of there being no temples (monasteries) set apart 
for Chinese priests. He then goes on to enumerate the 
names of the pilgrims referred to in his memoirs. 

I. The Shaman Hiuen-Ohnty master of the law, a native 
of Sin-chang, in Ta-chau. His Indian name was Prahd- 
samati. At a very early age he became a disciple of 
Buddha, and when arrived at manhood, he purposed in 
his mind to set out to worship the sacred traces of his 
religion. Accordingly, in the course of the Ch^ng-Kwan 
period (627-650 A.D.), taking up his residence in the capital, 
he first applied himself to the acquisition of the Sanskrit 
{Fan) language. Then, staff in hand, travelling westward, 
he got beyond Kin-fa, and passing across the desert of 


drifting sands, he arrived by way of t"he Iron Gates,^ 
over the Snowy Peak, through Tukh^ra and Tibet into 
E"orth India, and finally reached the JS-landhar country, 
having narrowly, escaped death at the hands of robbers. 
He remained in Jalandhar four years. The king of the 
Mung ^ country caused him to be detained, and gave him 
all necessary entertainment. Having gained proficiency 
in Sanskrit literature, after a little delay, he gradually 
went southward and reached the Mahabodhi (convent). 
There he remained four years. After this he went on to 
N§.landa, where he remained three years. After this he 
followed the Ganges' northern course, and received the reli- 
gious offerings of the king of the country. He remained 
here in the Sin-che and other temples, then, after three 
years, he returned to Loyang by way of IsTepal and Tibet, 
after a journey of some 10,000 li. 

Hiuen-Ohiu after this, in the year 664 A.D., returned to 
Ka^mir, where he found an aged Brahman called Loka- 
yata, with whom he returned to Loyang. And now 
being pressed to set out again, he passed by way of the 
piled-up rocks (asmahUta) along the steep and craggy 
road that leads across rope-bridges into Tibet. Having 
escaped with his life from a band of robbers, he arrived 
at the borders of North India, Here he met with the 
Chinese envoy ,^ who accompanied him and Lokayata to 
the Mar^th^ country in Western India. Here he met the 
Mung king, and, in obedience to his instructioD, remained 
there for four years. Proceeding to South India, he 
purposed to return to Tangut, taking with him various 
sorts of medicines. He reached the Vajrasana, and 
passed on to NS^landa, where I-tsing met him. And now, 
having fulfilled the purpose of his life, he found the way 
through Nepal blocked by Tibetan hordes, and the road 

^ VideBuddkistJRecords,kc., -p. 36, have succeeded the last Sil^ditya? 

n. 119. Vide Records, p. 176 n,, and p. 242. 

2 There is much mention of the ^ This is probably the envoy who 

Mung king in I-tsing ; is he the was sent from China, and arrived in 

same as the Bala-rai who seems to India after the death of ^iladitya. 


through Kapi^a in the hands of the Arabs. Then he 
returned to the G-rihdraMta peak and the Bamboo garden, 
but could find no solution of his doubts; so retiring to 
the Amrlvat country in Mid-India, he died there, aged 
sixty odd years.^ 

2. Taou-hiy a doctor of the law, of the district of Lih- 
Shing, the department Tsa'i-chau. He was called by 
the Sanskrit name Srideva. He went by the northern 
route through Tibet towards India, visited the Mah4- 
bodhi, and paid respect to the sacred traces, and during 
some years dwelt in the N^landa monastery and in the 
Kui^i country. The Mung king of AmrS,vat paid him 
great respect. Whilst in the I^Manda monastery he 
studied books of the Great Vehicle ; whilst in the Chu-po- 
pun-na (Ddvavdna) temple (the teinple of the cremation) 
he studied the Vinaya pitaka, and practised himself in 
the bahdavidyd, a synopsis of which he drew up in the 
square and grass characters. Whilst in the Mah^bodhi 
temple he engraved one tablet in Chinese, giving an 
account of things new and old in China. He also wrote 
(copied ?) some four hundred chapters of stoas and ^^s- 
tras whilst at N§.landa. I-tsing, although in the west, 
did not see him, but whilst dwelling in the AmrS^vat 
country, he sickened and died, aged fifty years. 

3. Sse-pin, a doctor of the law, a man of Ts'ai-chau, 
well versed in the Sanskrit forms of magic incantation. 
He accompanied Hiuen-chiu from ISTorth India to Western 
India. Arrived at Amarakova (?), he dwelt in the Eoyal 
Temple, where he met with Taou-Hi; they remained here 
for one year together, when Sse-pin sickened and died, 
aged thirty-five years. 

4. Aryavarman, a man of Sin-lo [Oorea), left Chang'an 
A.D. 638. He set out with a view to recover the true 
teaching and to adore the sacred relics. He dwelt in the 

1 Witli respect to the other priests the Am^ravatl country vide Records^ 
named by I-tsing, we can only here ii. 209, n. 70. 
give an abstract of his notices. For 


N§.landa Temple, copying out many Sutras. He had left the 
eastern borders of Corea, and now bathed in the Dragon 
pool of Mlanda. Here he died, aged seventy odd years. 

5. Htvui-nieh, a Corean, set out for India 638 A.D., 
arrived at the NS-landa Temple, and there studied the 
sacred books and reverenced the holy traces, I-tsing 
found some writing he had left in the temple, where also 
he had left his Sanskrit MSS. The priests said he died the 
same year, about sixty years of age. 

6. Hiuen-Ta'% a doctor of the law, a Corean, called 
by the Sanskrit name of Sarvajnanadeva. In the year 
Yung-hwei (650 A.D.) he went by the Tibetan road through 
Nepal to Mid- India; he there worshipped the relics at the 
Bodhi Tree. Afterwards going to the Tukbara country, 
he met Taou-hi, with whom he returned to the Ta-hsio 
Temple (Mahdhddhi). Afterwards he returned to China, 
and was not heard of again. 

7. Hiuen-hau, a doctor of the law, a Corean, went with 
Hiuen-chiu, in the middle of the CMng-hioan period, to 
India, and reaching the Ta-hsio Temple, he died there. 

8. Two priests of Corea, names unknown, started from 
Chang'an by the southern sea-route and came to Sribhoja. 
They died in the country of Po-lu-sse, to the westward 
(the western portion of Sumatra). 

9. Buddhadharma, a man of To-ho-shi-li {Tushara or 
TurhTidra), of great size and strength. He became a priest, 
and being of a gentle disposition, he wandered through the 
nine provinces of China, and was everywhere received. 
Afterwards he went to the west to worsbip the sacred 
traces. I-tsing saw him at E'S.landa ; afterwards he went 
to the north when about fifty years old. 

10. Taou-fang, a doctor of the law, of Ping-chau, went by 
way of the Sandy Desert and the Tsih rock to Nepal, and 
afterwards came to the Ta-hsio Temple, where he remained 
several years ; he then returned to Nepal, where he still is. 

11. Taou-sing, a doctor of the law, of Ping-chau, called 


in Sanskrit Chandradeva, in the last year of the OMng- 
kwan period (649 a.d.) went by the Tu-fan (Tibetan) 
road to Mid-India ; he arrived at the Bodhi Temple, where 
he worshipped the chaityas; afterwards he went to N^landa. 
After that, going twelve stages to the eastward, he came 
to the King's Tem;ple, where they study only the Little 
Vehicle, He remained here many years, learning the 
books of the Trijoitaka according to the Hinaylna. Ee- 
turning to China through Nepal, he died. 

12. Shang-tih, a contemplative priest, of Ping-chau. He 
longed for the joys of the Western Paradise, and, with the 
view of being born there, he devoted himself to a life of 
purity and religion (reciting the name of Buddha), He 
vowed to write out the whole of the Prajna-SiXtra, occupy- 
ing 10,000 chapters. Desiring to worship the sacred ves- 
tiges, and so by this to secure for himself the greater 
merit, with a view to a birth in that heaven, he travelled 
through the nine provinces {of China), desiring wherever 
he went to labour in the conversion of men and to write 
the sacred books. Coming to the coast, he embarked in a 
ship for Kalinga.^ Thence he proceeded by sea to the 
Malaya country, and thence wishing to go to Mid-India, he 
embarked in a merchant-ship for that purpose. Being 
taken in a storm, the ship began to founder, and the 
sailors and merchants were all struggling with one another 
to get aboard a little boat that was near. The captain 
of the ship being a believer, and anxious to save the 
priest, called out to him with a loud voice to come aboard 
the boat, but Shang-tih replied, " I will not come ; save 
the other people." And so he remained silently absorbed, 
as if a brief term of life were agreeable to one possessed 
of the heart of B6dhi. Having refused all help, he clasped 
his hands in adoration, and looking towards the west, he 
repeated the sacred name of Amita, and when the ship 
went down these were his last words. He was about fifty 

1 The coast of Annam, 


years of age. He had a follower unknown to me, who 
also perished with his master, also calling on the name of 
Amita Buddha. 

13. Matisimha, a man of the capital, his common name 
being Wong-po, This man accompanied the priest Sse-pin, 
and arriving at the Middle Land, dwelt in the Sin-cM 
Temple. Finding his progress little in the Sanskrit 
language, he returned homewards by way of ISTepal, and 
died on the way there, set. 40. 

14. Yiian-liwui, a doctor of the law, according to report 
offspring of the commander-in-chief ISfgan. Leaving North 
India, he dwelt in Ka^mir, and took charge of the royal 
elephants. The king of this country delighted day by 
day in going to the different temples, the Bragon-Lahe 
Mountain Temple, the Kung Yang Temple. This is where 
the 500 Eahats received charity. Here also the venerable 
Madyantika, the disciple of Ananda, converted the Dragon 
King. Having remained here some years, he went south- 
wards and came to the great Bodhi Temple, where he 
worshipped the B&dhi Tree, beheld the Lake of " Mu-chin " 
(Muchhalinda), ascended the Vulture Peak, &c. After 
this he went back to Nepal and died there. 

15. Again, there was a man who accompanied the envoy 
by the northern route to the Baktra country, and lodged 
in the N§,va-vihS,ra in Balkh. In this establishment the 
principles of the Little Vehicle were taught. Having 
become a priest^ he took the name of Chittavarma. Having 
received the precepts, he declined to eat the three pure 
things, on which the master of the convent said, " TathS.- 
gata, our Great Master, permitted five things {as food) ; why 
do you object to them ? " He answered, " All the books 
of the Great Vehicle forbid them ; this is what I formerly 
practised ; I cannot now bring myself to change." The 
superior answered, " I have established a practice here in 
agreement with the three sacred collections, and you follow 
your own interpretation^ which is contrary to mine. I 


cannot permit this difference of opinion ; I cease to be your 
master/' Chittavarma was thus reluctantly obliged to 
yield. Then having learned a little Sanskrit, he returned 
by the northern route. I know no more about him. 

1 6. Again, there were two men who lived in Nepal ; they 
were the children of the wet-nurse of the Duke-Prince of 
Tibet (Tufan). They both were ordained, but one went 
back to lay life. They lived in the Temple of the 
Heavenly Kings. They spoke Sanskrit well and under- 
stood Sanskrit books. 

17. Zung, a doctor of the law ; I know not whence he 
came. In the GMng Kioan period (627-650 a.b.) he went 
by the northern route to IsTorth India, wishing to visit the 
sacred spots. In Mid-India he got a Sanskrit copy of the 
Fa-lnoa (Lotus of the Good Law), and having gone to 
Gandhara, he died there. 

18. Ming-Yuen^ a man of Yih-chau, a doctor of the 
law, whose Sanskrit name was Chinta-deva. He em- 
barked in a ship of Cochin-China, and came to the Kalinga 
country, and thence to Ceylon. 

19. I'long^ a priest of Yih-chau, well versed in the 
Vinaya Pitaka, and in the interpretation of the Yoga, set 
forth from Chang'an with a priest, Chi-ngan, of his own 
province, and an eminent man called I-hiuen, and after 
travelling through the southern provinces came toMau- 
Lui, and there embarked on board a merchant-ship. 
Having arrived at Langkia (Kamalanka ?), Chi-ngan died. 
I-long, with his other companion, went on to Ceylon, 
where they worshipped the Tooth, and having obtained 
various books, returned through Western India. It is not 
known where he is now residing. He has not been heard 
of in Mid-India, 

20. I-tsing next refers to a priest of Yih-chau named 
Ruining, He left China by sea for the south in the year 665 
A.D., and passed three years in the country called Ho-ling.^ 

1 JCalin^a. 


21. The next notice is of tlie life of a priest called 
Wan-ki of Kiau-chau, who spent ten years in the Southern 
Sea, and was very learned in the language of Kun-lnn 
(Condore), and partly acquainted with Sanskrit. He 
afterwards retired to a lay life and resided at Shi-lo-foshi 

22. Another priest called Mocha-Deva, a Cochin-Chinese, 
went to India by the southern sea- route, and having 
visited all the countries of that part, arrived at the 
Mah§,bodhi Temple, where he adored the sacred relics, and 
died 86 1. 24. 

23. Kwei-chung (the disciple of Ming-yuen, ISTo. 18), 
another priest of Cochin-China, went by the Southern 
Sea with his master, Ming-yuen, to Ceylon ; afterwards in 
company with him proceeded to the B6dhi Tree, and after- 
wards to Eajagriha, and being taken sick in the Bamboo 
garden (Veluvana), he died there, aged thirty years. 

24. Hwui Yen, a doctor of the law, of Kwai-chau, was 
a pupil of Hing-Kung ; he went to Sirhhala, and remained 
there. Whether he is dead or alive I know not. 

25. Sin-chm, a doctor of the law, his country not 
known. His Sanskrit name Charita-varma. Taking the 
northern route, he arrived in the Western country, and 
after the customary reverence, he lived in the Sin-ch4 
Temple. In an upper room of this temple he constructed 
a sick chamber, and left it for ever for the use of sick 
brothers. He himself died here. Some days before his 
death, in the middle of the night, he suddenly exclaimed, 
"There is Bodhisattva, with outstretched hand, beckoning 
me to his lovely abode ; " and then, closing his hands, with 
a long sigh he expired, aet. thirty-five. 

26. Ohi Hing, a doctor of the law, of Ngai-Chau, his 
Sanskrit name Prajna-Deva, went to the Western region, 
and afterwards dwelt in the Sin-cbe Temple, north of the 
river Ganges, and died there, aged about fifty years. 

27. We next read of a priest of the Mah§,yana school 


called Tang, or *Hhe lamp" (dipa), who went with his 
parents when young to the land of Dvdrajpati (Sandoway 
in Burmah), and there became a priest. He returned with 
the Chinese envoy to the capital. Afterwards he went by 
the southern sea-route to Ceylon, where he worshipped 
the Tooth ; and then proceeding through South India and 
crossing into Eastern India, arriving at Tamralij)ti : being 
attacked by robbers at the mouth of the river, he barely 
escaped with his life ; he resided at Tamralipti for twelve 
years, having perfected himself in Sanskrit ; he then pro- 
ceeded to NS,landa and Buddha GayS,, then to Vai^ali and 
the Ku^i country, and finally died at Ku^inagara, in the 
Pari-Mrv§.na Temple. 

28. Sanghavarma, a man of Samarkand, when young 
crossed the Sandy Desert and came to China. Afterwards, 
in company with the envoy, he came to the Great B6dhi 
Temple and the VajrS,sana, where he burnt lamps in 
worship for seven days and seven nights continuously. 
Moreover, in the B6dhi Hall, under the Tree of A^oka, he 
carved a figure of Buddha and of Kwan-tseu-tsai Bodhi- 
sattva. He then returned to China. Afterwards, being 
sent to Kwai-chau (Cochin-Cliina), there was great scarcity 
of food there. He daily distributed food, and was so 
afiected by the sorrows of the fatherless and bereaved 
orphans, that he was moved to tears as he visited them. 
He was on this account named the weeping Bodhisattva, 
He died shortly afterwards from infection caught there, 
which soon terminated fatally, set. about sixty. 

29. Two priests of Kao-chang went to Mid-India, and 
died on the voyage. Their Chinese books are at Sribhoja. 

30. Wan-yun, a doctor of the law, of Loyang, travelling 
through the southern parts of China, came to Cochin-China, 
thence went by ship to Kalinga, where he died. 

31. I'hwui, a man of Loyang, of eminent ability, set out 
for India to recover some copies of Sanskrit (i^an) books. 
He died set. 30. 


32. Three priests set out by the northern route for 
Udy^na, and also for the place of Buddha's skull-bone. 
They are said to have died there, 

33. Hwui LuThy a Corean, otherwise called Prajnavarma, 
came by sea from his own country to Fuchau, and pro- 
ceeded thence to Chang'an. Following after the priest 
Hiuen-chiu (No. i, p. xiii.), he reached the West, and 
during ten years dwelt in the Amr^vat country and in 
the Sin-cM Tem.^lQ (north of the Ganges). Passing through 
the eastern frontiers, and thence proceeding northward, 
he came to the Tu-ho-lo (TuJchdra) Temple. This temple 
was originally built by the Tukh^ra people for their own 
priests. The establishment is called Gandhdrasanda, To 
the west is the Kapi^a Temple. The priests of this estab- 
lishment study the Little Vehicle. Priests from the north 
also dwell here. The temple is called Gunacharita, 

Two stages to the east of the Mahdhhddi ^ is a temple 
called Kiu-lu-kia.^ It was built long ago by a king of the 
Kiu-lu-ka country, a southern kingdom (KuruJcshetra?). 
Although poor, this establishment is strict in its teach- 
ing. Recently, a king called Sun-Army {Adityasena), 
built by the side of the old temple another, which is 
now newly finished. Priests from the south occupy this 

About forty stages east of this, following the course of 
the Ganges, is the Deer Temple, and not far from this is a 
ruined establishment, with only its foundations remaining, 
called the Tchina (or China) Temple. Tradition says that 
formerly a Mahfi,r^ja called Srigupta built this temple for 
the use of Chinese priests. He was prompted to do so by 
the arrival of about twenty priests of that country who 
had travelled from Sz*chuen to the Mah^bhSdi Temple to 
pay their worship. Being impressed by their pious de- 

1 It is doubtful whether the Mah^- 2 This may be restored to Kuruka, 

bh6di named here does not refer and may possibly refer to the Kuru 

to the Tu-ho-lo Temple mentioned country, 


meanour, he gave them the land and the revenues of about 
twenty villages as an endowment. This occurred some 
500 years ago. The land has now reverted to the king of 
Eastern India, whose name is Devavarma, but he is said 
to be willing to give back the temple-land and the endow- 
ment in case any priests come from China. The Maha- 
bhodi Temple, near the Diamond Throne (i.e., at Gayd), 
was built by a king of Ceylon for the use of priests of that 
country. The N^landa Temple, which is seven stages 
north-east of the Mah^bhodi, was built by an old king, 
Sri-Sakraditya, for a Bhikshu of North India called Rdja- 
Bhdja. After beginning it he was much obstructed, but 
his descendants finished it, and made it the most magni- 
ficent establishment in Jambudvipa. This building of 
N^landa stands four-square, like a city precinct. The 
gates {porches) have overlapping eaves covered by tiles. 
The buildings {gates f) are of three storeys, each storey 
about twelve feet in height. 

Outside the western gate of the great hall of the 
temple is a large st<ipa and various chaityas, each erected 
over different sacred vestiges, and adorned with every kind 
of precious substance. 

The superior is a very old man; the Karmaddna or 
Vihdraswdmi or Vihdrapdla is the chief officer after the 
superior, and to him the utmost deference is paid. 

This is the only temple in which, by imperial order, a 
water-clock is kept to determine the right time. The 
night is divided into three watches, during the first and 
last of which there are religious services ; in the middle 
watch, as the priests may desire, they can watch or repose. 
The method in which this clock determines the time is 
fully described in the " Ki-lcwei-cKuen" 

The temple is called ^ri Ndlanda Vihdra, after the 
name of the IST^ga called N'anda. 

The great temple opens to the west. Going about twenty 
paces from the gate, there is a stftpa about 100 feet high. 

xxxviii ikrkob vctioM. 

This is where the Lord of the World (Lokandtha) kept 
Wass (the season of the mins) for three months ; the Sans- 
krit name is MUlagandhalcotL Northwards fifty paces is 
a great stftpa, even higher than the other ; this was built 
by Baldditya — very much reverenced — in it is a figure of 
Buddha turning the wheel of the law. South-west is a 
\\tt\Q chditya about ten feet high. This commemorates the 
place where the Brahman, with the bird in his hand, asked 
questions; the Chinese Qx^gxQ^^ion Su4i fau-to means just 
the same as this. 

To the west of the Mdlagandha Hall is the tooth-brush 
tree of Buddha. 

On a raised space is the ground where Buddha walked. 
It is about two cubits wide, fourteen or fifteen long, and 
two high. There are lotus flowers carved out of the 
stone, a foot high, fourteen or fifteen in number, to denote 
his steps. 

Going from the temple south to Rdjagriha is thirty Zi 
The Vulture Peak and the Bambu Garden are close to this 
city. Going S.W. to the Mah^b8dhi is seven stages {yo- 
janas), To Vaisdli is twenty-five stages north. To the 
Deer Park twenty or so stages west. East to Tamralipti 
is sixty or seventy stages. This is the place for embarking 
for China from Eastern India and close to the sea. There 
are about 3500 priests in the temple at Ndlanda, which is 
supported by revenues derived from land (villages) given 
by a succession of kings to the monastery. 

34. Taou-lin, a priest of King-chau (in HwpeK), whose 
Sanskrit name was Silaprahha, embarked in a foreign 
ship, and passing the copper-pillars, stretched away to 
Lanka (Kamalanka) ; after passing along the Kalinga 
coast he came to the country of the naked men. He then 
proceeded to Tamralipti, where he passed three years learn- 
ing the Sanskrit language. After visiting the Yajrasana 
and worshipping the B6dhi Tree, he passed to Ndlanda^ 
where he studied the Kosha, and after a year or two went 


to the Vulture Peak, near Rajagriha, and finally proceeded 
to South India. 

35. Tan-Ktvo7ig, a priest of the same district in China, 
went to India by the southern sea-route, and having 
arrived at A-li-U-lo (Arakan ?), he was reported to have 
found much favour with the king of that country, and to 
have got a temple built and books and images ; in the 
end, as was supposed, he died there. 

36. Hwui-ming, another priest from the same district, 
set out to go to India by the southern sea-route, but the 
ship being baffled by contrary winds, put in at Tung-chu 
(copper pillars), erected by Ma-yuen, and after stopping 
at Shang-Jcing, returned to China. 

37. Hiuen-ta, a priest of Kung-chow and the district of 
Kiang Ning, was a man of high family. He appears to 
have accompanied an envoy in a Persian ship to the 
southern seas. Having arrived at Fo-shai (Sribhdja), he 
remained there six months studying the Sabdavidyd ; the 
king was highly courteous, and on the occasion of his 
sending a present to the country of Ifb-to-yt^ (Malaya), 
Hiuen-ta proceeded there, and remained two months. He 
then went on to Quedah, and then at the end of winter 
went in the royal ship towards Eastern India. Going 
north from Quedkh, after ten days or so they came to the 
country of the naked men. For two or three lis along the 
eastern shore there were nothing but cocoa-nut trees and 
forests of betel-vines. The people, when they saw the 
ship, came alongside in little boats with the greatest 
clamour ; there were upwards of one hundred such boats 
filled with cocoa-nuts and plantains; they had also 
baskets, &c., made of rattan; they desired to exchange 
these things for whatever we had that they fancied, but 
they liked nothing so much as bits of iron. A piece of 
this metal two fingers' length in size would buy as many as 
five or ten cocoa-nuts. The men here are all naked, the 
women wear a girdle of leaves ; the sailors in joke offered 


them clothes, but they made signs that they did not want 
any such articles. This country, according to report, is 
south-west of Sz'-ch'uan. The country produces no iron 
and very little gold and silver ; the people live on cocoa- 
nuts and some esculent roots, but have very little rice or 
cereals. Iron is very valuable; they call it Lic-a. The 
men are not quite black, of middling height, they use 
poisoned arrows, one of which is fatal. Going for half 
a month in a north-west direction, we come to Tamralipti, 
which is the southern district of East India. This place 
is some sixty stages or more from Nstlanda and the Bodhi 
Tree. Meeting the priest called ''Lamp of the Great 
Vehicle*' (Mahdyana dipa) in this place, they remained 
together there one year, learning Sanskrit and practising 
themselves in the Sahda-sctstra. They then went on with 
some hundred or so merchantmen towards Central India. 
When about ten days' journey from the Mahabodhi, in a 
narrow pass, the road being bad and slippery, Hiuen-ta 
was left behind and attacked by robbers, who stripped 
him and left him half dead. At sundown some villagers 
rescued him and gave him a garment. Going on north, he 
came to Nalanda, and after visiting all the sacred spots in 
the neighbourhood, he remained at Nalanda ten years, and 
then going back to Tamralipti, he returned to Quedaii, 
and with all his books and translations, amounting in all 
to 500,000 ^lokas, enough to fill a thousand volumes, he 
remained at Sribh6ja. 

38. Shen-hing, a priest of Sin-Chow, also went to 
Sribhoja, where he died. 

39. The priest Ling-ivan, having gone through Annam, 
came to India, and erected under the Bodhi Tree a figure 
of Mditreya Bodhisattva one cubit in height, and of ex- 
quisite character. 

40. Seng-chi, a priest and companion of the former, 
went to India by the southern sea-route, and arrived 
at Samotata, The king of that country, named Eajabhata 


(or patu), a Upasaka, greatly reverenced the three objects 
of worship, and devoted himself to his religious duties. 

41. A priest, Chi-sz, is mentioned, who went to the south 
and resided at Shang-Mng, near Cochin-China. He then 
went south to Sribh&ja, and afterwards proceeded to India. 

42. A priest, Wou Hing (Frajnadeva) , in company with 
the last, left Hainan with an easterly wind ; after a month 
he arrived at Sribhoja. He then went in the royal ship 
for fifteen days to Malaya, in another fifteen days to 
Qued^h, then waiting till the end of winter, going west 
for thirty days he arrived at Naga-vadana (Nagapatam ?), 
whence after two days' sea-voyage he came to Simhapura 
{Ceylon), He there worshipped the sacred tooth, and then 
going K.E. for a month, arrived at the country of O-li-hi-lo, 
This is the eastern limit of East India. It is a part of 
Jambudvlpa. After this he proceeded to the Mahabodhi 
Temple. Having rested here, he returned to N^landa and 
studied the Yoga^ Kosha^ and other works. Moved with 
a desire to find copies of the Vinaya, he repaired to the 
Tiladaka Temple. In the end he died at Nalanda. 

43. Fa-shin also started by the southern route, and after 
passing Shang-king (Saigon), Ku-long, Kaling, and Qued^h, 
he died. 

Putting together these notices, we may conclude that 
the sea-route between China and India in the early years 
of the Tang dynasty was by way of Java, Sumatra, the 
Straits of Malacca, the coast of Burma and Arakan, to 
Tamralipti, or else by the more adventurous way of Ceylon 
from Qued^h. It seems that the Condore Islands were a 
centre of trade, and that the language of the natives of 
these islands was used generally through the Southern 
Seas; at least I-tsing speaks of himself as interpreting 
the language at Sribhoja {vide p. xv. n.). 

We have one or two points of some certainty in the 


itinerary of these pilgrims. For instance, in the Si-yu-ki, 
Hiuen-Tsiang [Records^ ii. 200) says that to the N".E. of 
Samotata is the country called Srihslietra^ to the S.E. of 
this is Kamalangka, to the east of this is Ddrapati (read 
Dv&,rapati). This country has been identified by Captain 
St. John {Phoenix, May 1872) with old Tung-00 and 
Sandoway in Burma, lat. 18° 20' IST. long. 94° 20' E. ; it is, 
in fact the " door land " between Burma and Siam ; this 
latter being called Champa or Lin-I. Hiuen-Tsiang re- 
marks that to the S.W. of Lin-I, or Siam, is the country 
of the Yavanas, or, as they are called in his text, the 
Yen-mo-na, We do not read of this country in I-tsing ; 
it may perhaps represent Cambodia. 

IV. Another work of some importance written by I-tsing 
is the following : — 


(Nanj. Gat. 1492.) 

This work, in four chapters, was compiled by I-tsing, 
and forwarded to China " by one returning to the inner 
land,'' to be arranged and published. It relates to matters 
connected with the religious customs of India and some 
other districts (Southern Sea islands) visited by I-tsing, or 
gathered from others who had visited these places, during 
the time of his absence on foreign travel. 

Passing by the introduction, which refers to the origin 
of the world and its orderly arrangement, I-tsing (or 
his editor) next alludes to the number of the Buddhist 
schools (Nikdyas), and the various countries in which they 
flourished. The chief schools of independent origin — but 
depending on distinct tradition — he names, are these : — 

1. The AryamahS-sanghiti, divided into seven branches. 

2. The Aryasthaviras, divided into three branches, the 
Tripitaka more or less like the former. 

WTRODUCflON, xliii 

3, AryamftlasarvastavMins, divided into four branches, 
the Tripitaka more or less like the former. 

4. The Aryasammatiyas, divided into four branches. 
The Tripitaka differs in its number of stanzas from the 
former, and the school has other divergences. 

These schools, with their sub-branches, compose the 
eighteen sects into which Buddhism was divided at an 
early date (the century following the Hirv^na). 

In the country of Magadha, he observes, each of the four 
schools is in a flourishing condition. In the Mar§,tha coun- 
try and in Sindh the Sammatiya school is chiefly followed. 
In the north the Sarvftstav&dins and Mah^sanghikas are 
met with ; in the southern borders the Mah^sthaviras are 
principally found. The others are little known. On the 
eastern outskirting countries the four schools are inter- 
mingled. [Prom NS^landa, five hundred stages east, is the 
frontier land referred to. For these countries vide Records, 
ii. 200.] 

In Ceylon the Sthavira school alone flourishes; the 
Mahasanghikas are expelled. 

With respect to the ten countries known as the Southern 
Sea islands,^ the M61asarv§;Stavadins and the Sammatiyas 
are principally found ; the other two schools at the pre- 
sent time are seldom met with. The teaching of the 
Little Vehicle is principally affected ; in Mo-lo-yau, how- 
ever, the Great Vehicle is studied also. Some of these 
islands may be perhaps 100 li in circuit, others several 
hundred li, and some 100 stages round. It is diflSicult to 
calculate distances on the great ocean, but the best skilled 
merchantmen know that they first arrive at Kiu-lun 
(called by the Cochin-China ambassadors Kwan-lun).^ 

I Reckoning from fche west, the ^ The people of this country alone 

names of the islands are, Po-lu-sse^ have wooHy hair and black skins. 

Mo'to-yan{ih.QH?i-m&2i^Shi-li-fo-yau)^ With this exception, the people of 

Mo-ho-siu, Ilo-ling, Tan-Tan, Pw^an- all the other countries are like those 

piv'an, Fo-li, Kiu-lun, Fo-shi-po-Io, of China. — Ch, Ed, 
Hoshen, Mo-kxa-man, and other 
little islands not catalogued. 


In ChS,mpa (otherwise called Lin-I)^ the Sammatiya 
school is chiefly found, with a few Sarvastavadins. A 
month's voyage south-west is Annara. Formerly the people 
sacrificed to Heaven, but afterwards the law of Buddha 
flourished ; now a wicked king has destroyed the priests, 
and all the heretics live mixed together. This is the 
southern point of Jambudvtpa. 

Speaking generally, the Great Vehicle prevails in the 
north, the teaching of the Little Vehicle in the south. In 
some parts of China the Great Vehicle is in favour, but 
with these exceptions the Great and Little Vehicle are 
intermingled without distinction. In both cases the rules 
of moral conduct and the four truths are taught, but in the 
Great Vehicle they worship the Bodhisattvas, but not in 
the teaching of the Little Vehicle. 

With respect to the Great Vehicle, there are only two 
branches, viz., (i) the Chung-kwan {MddyamiJcas ?) ; (2) the 
Yoga system. The Madyamikas regard all outward phe- 
nomena as empty and substantially unreal. The Yogas 
regard outward things as nothing, inward things as every- 
thing. Things are just what they appear to cognition. 
And so with respect to the sacred doctrine, it is true to one 
and false to another; there is no positive certainty for all. 
The great aim is to reach that shore}- and to stem the tide 
of life. 

After some further remarks, I-tsing proceeds to say that 
his records are framed on the teaching of the Mulasarva- 
stavMin school, divided into three branches : — i. The Dhar- 
maguptas; 2. the MahMsakas ; 3. the Kasyapiyas. 

In Udyana, Karashar, and Khotan there is a mixture of 

We will now pass on to give the headings of the chap- 
ters in the work under notice :•— 

i That shore, i.e., the other side of the stream of transmigration. 


the names of the forty chapters of the 

1. The evil of disregarding the observation of the 
season of rest (Vass), 

2. Eight decorum in the presence of the honoured one 
{images or paintings of the honoured one or ones). 

3. The diminutive seats to be used whilst eating or 

4. On the necessary cleansing of food vessels and per- 
sonal preparation. 

5. On cleansing after meals. 

6. On the two sorts of water-pitchers. 

7. On the early inspection with regard to insects. 

8. On the early tooth- cleansing wood {brush). 

9. Eules on undertaking religious fasts. 

10. On special requirements as to raiment and food. 

11. As to the different kinds of vestments. 

12. On special rules as to female clothing. 

13. Eules as to sacred {pure) enclosures. 

14. The resting-time of the community {the five grades). 

15. The period called Prav^rana {relaxation after 

16. On the mode of eating food (with chop-stichs). 

17. On proper rules as to the seasons or hours of 
religious worship, 

18. On articles of private property. 

19. Eules and regulations for ordination. 

20. The proper occasions for ablutions. 

21. On seats used, and personal accommodation whilst 

22. On rules concerning apartments for sleeping and 

23. On the advantage of proper exercise to health. 

24. Worship not mutually dependent. 

25. On the way of personal behaviour to a teacher. 


26. On the way of conduct towards strangers (priests). 

27. On symptoms of bodily illness. 

28. On medical rules. 

29. On exceptional medical treatment (for offensive 

30. On turning to the right in worship. 

31. On rules of decorum in cleansing the sacred objects 
of worship. 

32. On chanting in worship. 

33. On reverence to sacred objects. 

34. On rules for learning in the West. 

35. On the propriety of long hair. 

36. On disposing of the property of a deceased monk. 

37. On property allowed to the fraternity. 

38. On cremation. 

39. On charges brought by low or depraved men, 

40. The unselfish character of the old worthies. 

So far the headings of the chapters of this most im- 
portant but obscure work. It is to be hoped that the 
promised translation by a Japanese scholar may soon 
appear; the contents of the various chapters, as I have 
summarised them for my own reference, show me that the 
book, when clearly translated, will shed an unexpected 
light on many dark passages of Indian history. 

The entire number of books translated by I-Tsing, as 
we have before remarked, amounted to fifty-six. I need 
allude to none of these on the present occasion, except to 
say that their names may be found in Mr. Kanjio's Cata- 
logue of the Buddhist Tripitaka (Appendix II., p. 441). 
With respect, however, to the small tract numbered 1441 
in the Catalogue, I may add that I am now printing the 
original text, which I hope to publish shortly with an 
English translation and notes. 

In commending the present rather laborious work to the 
notice of the public, I must regret its many defects^ and at 


the same time apologise both to the Publishers and my 
Readers for the long delay in completing the task I under- 
took. Eesponsibilities which have increased with increas- 
ing years, and flagging energies, the result of long sickness, 
must be my excuse. 

But I may not conclude without sincerely thanking 
those who have supported me in my labours, and especi- 
ally his Lordship the Secretary of State for India and his 
Grace the Duke of JSTorthumberland, from both of whom I 
have received material assistance. 

Greens Norton Reotoby. 







Begins with the Urth {of Hiuen-Tsiang) in Koio-shi^ arid ends 
with the account of his arrival at Kau- Chang. 

The infant name of the Master of the Law ^ was Hiuen- 
Tsiang ; his ordinary family name was Chin : he was a 
native of Chin-Liu. He descended from Chang-Kong, 
who during the Han dynasty was lord of Tai-K'iu. His 
great-grandfather, whose name was Kin, was prefect of 
Shang-Tang, under the after- Wei dynasty. His grand- 
father Kong, by his distinguished scholarship, obtained 
employment in the public service. During the Ts'i 
dynasty he was appointed president of the Imperial 
College/ having, as endowment, the revenues of the town 
of Chow-nan : he thus founded the fortunes of his 
descendants : he also was born in the district of Kow- 
shi. His father Hwui was distinguished for his superior 

1 This title, which corresponds to the Chinese Fa-sse, wiU be applied to 
Hiuen-Tsiang throughout the present work. 

2 Old University at Peking. 


abilities, the elegance of his manners and his moderation. 
At an early age he (i.e., the father of Hiuen-Tsiang) began 
to recite the Sacred Books ; ^ in figure he was eight feet ^ in 
height, with finely lined eyebrows, and bright eyes. He 
wore his dress large, and his girdle was full, loving to be 
recognised as a scholar. Born in those times, and a man 
of a remote district, he was simple in his manners and 
contented — and sought neither honour nor preferment. 

Anticipating the decay and fall of the Sui dynasty, he 
buried himself in the study of his books. Many offers of 
provincial and district offices were pressed on him, which 
he persistently refused ; he declined all magisterial duties 
on the plea of ill-health ; so he remained in retirement, 
much to the admiration of his acquaintances. 

He had four sons, of whom the Master of the Law 
was the fourth. Even when a child he (-i.e., the Master of 
the Law) was grave as a prince, and of exceptional ability. 
When he was eight years old his father sitting near his 
table was reading aloud the Hiau classic (on filial piety) ^ 
and coming to the passage when Tsang-tseu rose (he/ore 
his master)^ suddenly the boy arranged his dress and got 
up. His father asking him why he did so, he replied : 
"Tsang-tseu hearing the command of his master, rose up 
from his seat ; surely then Hiuen-Tsiang dare not sit 
at ease whilst listening to the loving instruction (of his 
father)!' His father was much pleased by this reply, 
and perceived that his child would become a distinguished 
person. Then calling together the members of his family, 
he narrated the incident to them, on which they con- 
gratulated him, and said : '' There is here promise of high 
nobility.'' Even at this early age his wisdom was of such 
a remarkable kind. 

From this age he took to reading the Sacred Books,^ 
and was charmed with the writings of the ancient sages 

1 That is, the Classics and other to about 9^ inches. Vide Julien's 
religious treatises. Translation, p. 468, 1. 31. 

2 The/00^ here referred to is equal 


A book without elegance and propriety he would not 
look at ; he would have no intercourse with those whose 
ways were opposed to the teaching of the holy and wise. 
He did not mix with those of his own age, nor spend his 
time at the market-gates. Although cymbals and drums, 
accompanied by singing, resounded through the public 
streets, and the girls and boys congregated in crowds to 
assist in the games, singing and shouting the while, he 
would not quit his home. Moreover, when he was still 
young he applied himself with diligence to the duties of 
piety and gentleness at home. 

His second brother Chang-tsi had previously become 
a disciple of Buddha, and dwelt in the convent of Tsing- 
tu at Loyang (the Eastern capital). Observing that the 
Master of the Law was deeply given to the study of 
religious doctrine, he therefore took him to his convent 
(seat of sacred wisdom) and taught him the method and 
practice of the Sacred Books (of Buddhism), 

At this time there was an unexpected Eoyal mandate 
for the election at Loyang of fourteen priests, to be 
supported free of charge. There were several hundred 
applicants. The Master of the Law, owing to his youth, 
could not be a candidate, but he took his stand close by 
the Hall gate. At this time the high-commissioner, 
Ch'ing-Shen-Kwo, having an aptitude for recognising 
talent in those whom he met, observing Hiuen-Tsiang, 
addressed him and said : " My friend, who are you ? " 
Eeplying he said : " I am so-and-so." Again he asked : 
" Do you wish to be elected ? " He replied, *' Yes ! 
certainly ; but not being sufficiently advanced in years, 
I am excluded." Again he asked : '^ And what is your 
motive in becoming a disciple ? " He replied : " My 
only thought in taking this step is to spread abroad the 
light of the Eeligion ^ of Tathagata, which we possess." 
Shen-Kwo was deeply gratified with the sentiment, and 

1 Transmitted Law, 


as the outward appearance of the youth was prepossess- 
ing, he selected him and took him to the officers and 
said : " To repeat one's instruction is easy, but true self- 
possession and nerve are not so common ; if you elect 
this youth, he will without doubt become an eminent 
member of the religion of Sakya. Only I fear that 
neither I (Kiao) nor your Excellences will live to see 
the day when the soaring clouds shall distil the sweet 
dew (of Buddha's doctrine). But nevertheless, the illus- 
trious character of this honourable youth will not be 
eclipsed, as I regard the matter." 

And so the words of the noble Ch'ing prevailed. 

Having been admitted as a recluse, he dwelt with his 

At this time there was in the convent a Master of the 
Law, called King, who recited and preached upon the 
Sutra of the Mrvtoa. Hiuen-Tsiang having got the book, 
studied it with such zeal that he could neither sleep 
nor eat. Moreover he studied under the direction of 
Yen, doctor of the law, the Sdst7'a of the Great Vehicle 
{Mahdydna Sdstra) ; and thus every day his love for 
such studies increased. By hearing a book only once, 
he understood it thoroughly, and after a second reading 
he needed no further instructions, but remembered it 
throughout. All the assembly of priests were astonished, 
and when at their direction he mounted the pulpit, he 
expounded with precision and clearness the deep prin- 
ciples of Religion to the bottom. The Masters and hon- 
ourable body of priests listened with attention ; he thus 
laid the foundation of his renown. At this time he was 
thirteen years old. 

After this the Sui dynasty lost the Empire, and the 
whole kingdom was in confusion. The capital became 
a rendezvous for robbers, and the Ho and Zo^ a resort of 
wild beasts. The magistrates were destroyed and the 

1 Or, the district between the rivers Ho and Lo, 

feooKi.j REMOVES TO SHING'tU, j 

body of priests either perished or took to flight. The 
streets were filled with bleached bones, and the burnt 
ruins of buildings. Since the rebellion of Wang-tong, 
and dreadful riots of Liu-shih, when massacre and ruin 
prevailed everywhere, no such calamity had happened 
to the Empire. The Master of the Law, although he 
was young, yet understood thoroughly the nature of these 
vicissitudes; and so he affectionately addressed his 
brother and said : " Though this were our native city, yet 
how could we, during the present state of things, avoid 
death ? Now I understand that the Prince of Tang has 
repulsed the people of Tsin-Yang, and established himself 
at Chang'an. The empire relies on him, as on father and 
mother ; let my brother go there with me ! " 

The brother agreeing with this advice, they went both 

It was now the first year of Wu-T6h.^ At this time 
the country was without regular government, and all the 
troops were under arms. The books of Confucius, and 
the sacred pages of Buddha were forgotten, every one was 
occupied with the arts of war. There were therefore no 
further religious conferences in the capital, and the 
Master of the Law was greatly afflicted thereat. 

Yang-ti, the emperor,^ in the first year of his reign 
had founded four Eeligious Houses in the Eastern capita), 
and had invited renowned priests of the empire to dwell 
therein. Those who were summoned were men of very 
superior merit, and so it followed that crowds of eminent 
religious teachers {aiders of religion) resorted to these 
establishments, of whom King-tu and Sai-tsin were the 
chief. In the last year of his reign, the country being 
in confusion, the necessaries of life began to fail: in 
consequence many people travelled into the territory of 

1 A.D. 6i8. 2 The second Emperor of the Sui dynasty, a.d. 605-617. 


Min and Shuh/ and amongst the rest the body of the 
priests {in question). 

And now the Master of the Law addressed his brother 
and said : " There is no religions business being attended 
to, and we cannot be idle, let us pass into the country 
of Shuh (Sz'chuen) and pursue our studies." 

His brother having consented, they traversed together 
the valley of Tseu-wu and entered Han-chiien, and there 
they met the two Doctors Kong and King, the principal 
priests of their convent. At the sight of these persons 
they were moved to tears with joy, and they abode with 
them a month and some days, receiving instruction ; after 
this they went on together to the town of Shing-tu. As 
there were many priests assembled in this town they 
founded there a religious place of assembly.^ Thus they 
listened once more to Sai-tsin explaining the Shi-lun 
{Mahdymia Samparigraha Sdstrd) and the Pi-tan (Ahhi- 
dharma Sdstra), whilst the Master Chin expounded the 
works of Kia-yen {Kdtydyana). Studying thus with- 
out loss of a moment, and with great earnestness, after 
two or three years, they had thoroughly mastered the 
teaching of the different schools. 

At this time the Empire was visited with famine and 
riot ; in Shuh alone there was abundance and peace ; 
priests from every quarter therefore flocked there, and 
hundreds of men ever assembled under the pulpit of the 
Preaching Hall. The Master of the Law by his profound 
wisdom and eminent talent in discussion, surpassed them 
all ; so that throughout Wu and Shuh and Khing and 
Tsuh there was no one but had heard of him, and 
desired to witness his skill, as those of old respected the 
names of Li and Kwoh.^ 

The Master of the Law for the sake of being with his 
brother took up his abode in the Hung-hwui Temple of 

1 North- West and South-West China. 
2 Or, they established Religious meetings, ^ Vide Mayers, 379 and 304. 


Shing-tu ; lie too (i.e,, his hrother) was remarkable for his 
saintly appearance, and was of a noble and commanding 
presence like that of his father. He loved both the 
esoteric and exoteric doctrine."^ He was accustomed to 
preach on the Nirvana Sutra and the Sastra called Shi-ta- 
shing,^ and the Abhidharraa (Sdstra) : he was versed also 
in literature and history, but he excelled principally in the 
study of Lau (tseu) and Chwang.^ The people of Shuh 
so much loved him that the Governor of the Province, 
Tsan-Kung, gave him particular marks of his high respect. 
When he undertook to write or speak on a subject his 
manner was so dignified and his discourse so free from em- 
barrassment, that he was in no way inferior to his brother. 
As to the latter, he was grave and dignified, living 
apart from the crowd, and avoiding worldly concerns. 
He traversed the eight expanses {heavens .?), and pene- 
trated the hidden secrets of nature. Possessed of a 
noble ambition he desired to investigate thoroughly the 
meaning of the teaching of the Holy ones, and to restore 
the lost doctrine and to re-establish the people. He was 
prepared to face wind and weather, and his mind, even 
if he stood by chance in the presence of the Emperor, 
would only gather strength and firmness: certainly in 
these respects he surpassed his brother. But both of 
them were distinguished by their singular talents and a 
certain sweetness of manner ; they were renowned among 
their associates and of noble character; so that the 
brothers of Lu-Shan could not add to their fame. 

When the Master of the Law had completed his 
twentieth year, that is, in the fifth year of the period 
Wu-teh, he was fully ordained in Shing-tu. During the 
Eain-retreat he studied the Vinaya according to the 
Rule of the five divisions and seven sections;* after 

1 i.e.. Buddhism and otber litera- the Vinaya of the 3IahisdsaJca School, 
ture. and to the seven sections of " Moral 

2 Named before. Science " referred to by Mr. Alwis, 

3 Mayers, 92. Lecture II., p. 19, as reprinted by the 
* This is obscure. It may refer to Pali- Text Society, 


mastering this at one time, he then turned his attention 
to the Sutras and Sastras, and having investigated these 
he once more thought of going to the Capital, to inquire 
from the most celebrated masters concerning some diffi- 
culties he had met with (in his studies). However, being 
restrained from effecting his purpose by his brother's in- 
fluence, he secretly embarked with some merchants, and 
passing down the river through the three gorges ^ he 
arrived at Hang-chow, where he retired into the temple 
called Tien-hwang. The clergy and laity of that place 
had for a long time known of him by report, and now 
they came together and prayed him to explain the Sacred 
Books. The Master of the Law on their account preached 
on the Shi-lun, and the Abhidharma. From the summer 
to the winter, he went through each of these three 

At this time the King of Han-yang, by his highly 
virtuous character and his affectionate kindness, held his 
country in constraint and obedience. Hearing of the 
arrival of the Master of the Law, he was exceedingly 
rejoiced, and went in person to salute him. On the day 
when he stated the theme of the religious discussion, 
the king and his officers and a great number of lay and 
religious people came together to see him and hear him. 
And now they pressed forward in vast bodies to raise 
a discussion.^ The Master of the Law answered them 
in turn and gave them the desired explanations. They 
soon confessed themselves to be surpassed in argument — 
whilst the more learned were grieved to think that they 
were not able to gain the victory. 

The king then spoke of him in admiration without 
bounds : and offered him abundant presents, which he 
declined to accept. After the conferences he proceeded 
again northwards, seeking the most renowned priests. 
Arriving at Siang-chow, he began to place his difficulties 

1 Vide Mayers, No. 873, 

2 Vide Julien, in loc. 


before ITiUj a Master of the Law, and ask for explana- 
tions of his doubts. 

From this he came to Chiu-chow, and there he visited 
Shin, a Master of the Law, and studied the Shing-shih- 
lun (Satyasiddha-vydkarana-Mstra). After this he 
entered Chang'an and took up his abode in the Ta-hioh ^ 
Temple. There he studied with Yoh, a Master of the 
Law, the Kiu-she (Kosha) Sastra. After one reading he 
was perfected, and he retained the whole treatise in his 
memory. Neither young nor old could surpass him. 
Even in the most extremely difficult passages, beyond the 
comprehension of all the others, he alone could penetrate 
the meaning of these mysteries, and discover the sense. 

At this time there were at Chang'an two great 
teachers, Shang and Pin ; they had thoroughly explained 
the Two Yehicles, and investigated the Three Systems : 
they were the leaders of the religious people in the 
Capital. Both clergy and laity resorted to them; the 
entire district resounded with their praises, and their 
reputation spread beyond the sea ; moreover their disciples 
were as numerous as the clouds. Although they had 
mastered all the Sutras, they loved to discourse princi- 
pally on the Shi-ta-hm, The Master of the Law had 
already distinguished himself in the land of Wu and 
Shuh ; from the time he arrived at Chang'an, he per- 
sistently inquired of these teachers, and in a moment 
perceived the meaning of the deepest truths that they 
could explain. They were filled with admiration and 
overwhelmed him with praise. " Master/' they said, 
"you can be well styled in the religion of Sakya, ^a 
courier who traverses a thousand li in a day.' You are 
called to make the sun of wisdom shine again ; but 
as for us, worn out by age, we fear that we shall not 
see the day ! " 

From this time the disciples all looked up to him 
with reverence, and his renown filled the capital. 

1 The Chinese form of Mahdbddhi. 

16 THE LIPE OF HiVEN-TStANG. [book I. 

The Master of the Law having visited the celebrated 
Masters all round, devoured their words and examined 
their principles ; and so he found that each followed im- 
plicitly the teaching of his own school ; but on verifying 
their doctrine he saw that the holy books differed much, 
so that he knew not which to follow. He then resolved 
to travel to the Western world in order to ask about 
doubtful passages. He also took the treatise called 
Shi-tsih-ti-lun^ to explain his various doubts; this treatise 
is now called Yu-kia-sse-ti-lun.^ "Moreover," he said, 
'Ta-hien and Chi-yen, the first men of their age, were 
both able to search after the Law for the guidance and 
profit of the people ; should I not aim to preserve their 
noble example (traces) so that their blameless character 
may not be lost to posterity ? The duty of a great 
Teacher should be to follow in their steps." 

On this he agreed to go in company with others and 
present a petition ; but there was an imperial rescript 
forbidding {the project of going ahroad). On this the 
others gave up the plan ; the Master of the Law alone 
did not abandon his purpose, and resolved to travel alone. 
Again, hearing of the obstructions and davjgers of the 
Western road, he considered with himself and resolved 
that as he had been able to bear and overcome so many 
calamities common to men, he could not withdraw from 
his present purpose. Then he entered a sacred building 
and made known his undertaking, and requested permis- 
sion to carry it out, humbly praying ^ {vovnng and hegging) 
all the Holy Ones by their mysterious influences to cause 
his journey and his return to be without damage. 

At the birth of the Master of the Law his mother 
had dreamt that she saw him going to the West clothed 
in a white robe — on which she said : " You are my son, 

1 Saptadam hhUmi Sdstra, is said that Buddhists do not pray. 

2 Ydgdchdrya hhUmi Sdatra. The Chinese, however, admits of no 
^ Much comment has been made on other rendering than that in the text, 

the use of the word "praying" in which denotes both " aspiration " and 
connection with these translations. It "supplication." 


where then are you going ? " In reply he said, " I am 
going to seek for the Law." This was the first indication, 
then, of his foreign travels. 

In the third year and the eighth month of the period 
Ch6ng Kwan (630 A.D.), he was prepared to make a start. 
Desiring some happy omen, he dreamt at night that he 
saw in the middle of the great sea the Mount Sumeru, per- 
fected with the four precious substances — its appearance 
supremely bright and majestic. He thought he purposed 
to scale the Mount, but the boisterous waves arose aloft 
and swelled mightily. Moreover, there was neither ship 
nor raft ; nevertheless, he had no shadow of fear, "but with 
fixed purpose he entered (the waves). Suddenly he saw a 
lotus of stone burst as it were exultingly from the deep ; ^ 
trying to put his foot on it, it retired ; whilst he paused 
to behold it, it followed his feet and then disappeared ; — 
in a moment he found himself at the foot of the Mount, 
but he could not climb its craggy and scarped sides : as 
he tried to leap upwards with all his strength, there 
arose in a moment a mighty whirlwind which raised him 
aloft to the 'summit of the Mount. Looking around him 
on the four sides from the top he beheld nought but an 
uninterrupted horizon ; ravished with joy he awoke. 

On this he forthwith started on his journey. He was 
then twenty-six years of age. At this time there was a Tsin- 
Chow priest called Hiau-Ta who lived in the capital and 
studied the Mrvana Sutra. His study being finished he 
was returning to his home — they both went together 
therefore so far as Tsin-Chow. Having stopped there 
one night, he met with an associate from Lan-Ohow ; 
going on with him he came to Lan-Chow and stopped 
there one night. '- Here he met with some mounted men 
who were returning to Liang-Chow, after escorting an 
officer. Going with them, he came to that place, and 

1 This passage is very obscure. 

t2 The Ufe of HiuBN-TstAisii}. [boo^ t. 

stopped there a month and some days. The priests and 
laymen invited him to explain the ^N'irv^na Sutra and 
the Shi-lun, and the Pan-jo-king.^ The Master of the 
Law accordingly opened out the meaning of these works. 
Now Liang-Chow is the place of rendezvous for people 
dwelling to the West of the Eiver : moreover merchants 
belonging to the borders of Si-Ean {Tibet) and countries 
to the left of the T'sung-Ling Mountains, all come and go 
to this place without hindrance. 

On the day of opening the Eeligious Conference, these 
men all came together to the place and offered jewels 
and precious things, as they bowed down and uttered the 
praises of the Master. And on their return to their 
several countries they loudly applauded the Master of the 
Law to their Eulers, saying that he was about to go west- 
wards to seek the Law in the country of the Brahmans. 

In consequence of this throughout the kingdoms of 
the West all persons were prepared with joyful heart to 
entertain him on his arrival, with magnificence. 

The day of the Conference being ended, they offered 
him in charity abundant gifts, gold and silver money, 
and white horses without number. The Master of the 
Law, accepting one half, caused the lamps of the different 
convents to be lit, and as for the rest of the money he 
distributed it among the various religious establishments. 
At this time the administration of the country was 
newly arranged, and the frontiers did not extend far. 
There were severe restrictions placed on the people, who 
were forbidden to go abroad into foreign parts. Just 
then the governor of Liang-Chow was called Li-ta-liang. 
Obedient to the Eoyal mandate he strictly adhered to the 
rules of prohibition. And now there came a man who 
addressed Liang thus : — '' There is a priest here from 
Chang'an who is intending to go to the western regions — 
I do not know his plans." Liang, full of anxiety, called 

1 For the Sanscrit equivalents of these and other titles, vide Index to the 
Records of the Western World. 


the Master of the Law to his presence and asked him 
the object of his arrival. The Master replied, " I wish 
to go to the West to seek for the Law/' Liang hearing 
this, urged him to return to the capital. 

There was then at Liang-chow a Master of the Law 
called Hwui-wei, the most renowned of all priests of the 
region West of the Eiver, for his spiritual perception and 
vast abilities. He greatly admired the profound reason- 
ing of the Master of the Law, and hearing of his intention 
to go in search of the Law, he was very greatly rejoiced. 
Secretly sending two of his disciples, one called Hwui-lin, 
the other Taou-ching, he bade them conduct the Master 
in secret towards the West. 

From this time he dare not be seen in public — during 
the daytime he hid himself, at night he went on. 

In process of time he came to Kwa-chpw ; the governor 
To-Kiu having heard of his coming was greatly pleased, 
and provided him with all necessary provisions in plenty. 

The Master of the Law inquiring as to the Western 
roads, he was told in reply that north from this point 
fifty li or more there was the river Hu-lu,-^ the lower 
part of which is wide, the upper course narrow. Its 
stream is very impetuous and suddenly becomes deep, so 
that no boat can pass over it. On the upper part is fixed 
the Yuh-m^n barrier, so that one must pass by this ; 
thus it is the key to the Western frontiers. Forth-west 
beyond the barrier there are five signal towers in which 
officers, charged to watch, dwell — they are one hundred 
li apart. In the space between them there is neither 
water nor herb. Beyond the five towers stretches the 
desert called Mo-Kia-Yen, on the frontiers of the king- 
dom of I-gu, 

On hearing these particulars he was filled with anxiety 
and distress. His horse was dead, and he did not 
know what steps to take ; he remained there a month 


or so, sad and silent. Before his departure there came 
certain spies from Liang-chow, who said : " There is 
a priest called Hiuen-Tsiang who is purposing to enter 
on the Si-Fan territory. All the governors of provinces 
and districts are ordered to detain him." The Governor 
of the Province, Li-chang, was a man of a religious turn 
(a man of religion and faith), and he suspected in his 
heart that the Master of the Law was (the person named) ; 
accordingly he secretly brought the mandate and showing 
it to Hiuen-Tsiang he said : " Is not the Master the 
person here named ? " The Master of the Law hesitated 
and made no reply ; on which Chang said : ^' The Master 
ought to speak the truth, and your disciple will make 
some plan for you to escape." The Master of the Law 
then replied truthfully. Chang, hearing it, was filled 
with admiration and surprise : and then he said, " Since 
the Master is indeed capable of such a project, I will for 
his sake destroy the document ; " and forthwith he tore 
it up before him. " And now. Sir," he said, " you must 
depart in all haste." 

From this time his anxieties and fears greatly in- 
creased. Of the two novices who accompanied him, one, 
called Taou-ching, returned at once to Tun-hwang ; the 
other, called Hwui-Lin, alone remained, but because the 
Master knew that he had not strength for so distant a 
journey he let him also return. He now procured a 
horse by exchange ; his only sorrow was that he had no 
guide to accompany him. On this he proceeded to the 
temple where he was staying, and bowing before the 
image of Maitreya he fervently prayed that he would 
find him a guide who would lead him past the barrier. 

That night there was a foreign priest in the temple 
who had a dream. His name was Dharma, and in his 
dream he saw the Master sitting on a lotus flower and 
going towards the West. Dharma was lost .in surprise, 
and on the morrow he, told his dream to the Master of 
the Law, whose heart was rejoiced thereat, taking it as 

bookl] engages a guide. 15 

a sign of his being able to go. He answered Dharma, 
however, thus : " Dreams are vain and deceptive : what 
need is there to examine into this matter ? " Again he 
entered the Sacred precinct and worshipped in prayer. 

And now suddenly a foreign person came into the 
temple to worship Buddha, after doing which he saluted 
the Master of the Law by turning round him three 
times. The Master then asked him his family and 
personal name, on which he said, '' My family name is Shi, 
my personal name is Pan-to (Bandha ?)." The foreigner 
then asked to be allowed to take on him the five Eules,-"^ 
and having done so he was greatly rejoiced, and asked 
permission to come back ; after a little while he returned 
with cakes and fruit. The Master of the Law observing 
his intelligence and strong build, and also his respectful 
manner, accordingly spoke to him about his purpose to 
go westwards. The foreigner readily acquiesced, and 
said he would conduct the Master beyond the five signal 
towers. The Master of the Law was filled with joy, and 
gave him some clothes and other property to exchange 
for a horse, and appointed a time of meeting. 

On the morrow at sundown he proceeded towards the 
bush, where shortly afterwards the foreigner with an old 
greybeard, likewise a foreign person, riding on a lean 
horse of a red colour, came to meet him. The Master of 
the Law was not easy in his mind ; on which the young 
foreigner said: "This venerable greybeard is intimately 
acquainted with the Western roads, and has gone to and 
come back from I-gu more than thirty times : I have 
therefore brought him to go with you, hoping it may give 
you assurance.*' Then the senior man said : " The 
Western roads are difficult and bad ; sand-streams stretch 
far and wide ; evil sprites and hot winds, when they 
come, cannot be avoided : numbers of men travelling 
together, although so many, are misled and lost; how 
much rather you, sir, going alone ! how can you accom- 

1 That is, of a lay disciple. 


plish such a journey ? I pray you, weigh the thing with 
yourself well, and do not trifle with your life." 

The Master replied : " This poor priest (i.e., Hmen- 
Tsiang) aims to reach the Western world to search after 
the great Law — if he does not in the end reach the land 
of the Brahmans — there is no return to the Eastward, it 
matters not if he dies in the mid-route.'' 

The foreign greybeard then said : " If, sir, you will 
go you must ride this horse of mine : he has gone to and 
fro to I-gu some fifteen times. He is strong and knows 
the road ; your horse, sir, is a small one and not suitable 
for the journey." 

The Master of the Law then recalled to himself the 
following circumstance : when he was at Chang'an 
forming his purpose of visiting the Western world, one 
day there was a diviner named Ho-wang-ta, who by 
reciting spells and prognosticating, could tell a great deal 
about the matters in which one was engaged. The 
Master of the Law requested him to prognosticate about 
his journey. Ta said, " Sir ! you may go ; the appearance 
of your person as you go is that of one riding an old red 
horse, thin and skinny ; the saddle is varnished, and in 
front it is bound with iron." 

Now having observed that " the horse which the old 
foreigner was riding was lean and of a red colour, and 
that the varnished saddle was bound with iron, agreeing 
with the words of the diviner, he made up his mind that 
this was the fulfilment of the augury, and accordingly 
he exchanged his horse. The old greybeard was much 
rejoiced thereat, and making his respectful obeisance, they 

And now having packed his baggage, he went on 
through the night with the young foreigner. In the 
third watch they came to the river, and saw the guard- 
house called the Yuh-Men a good way off. At ten li 
from the barrier the upper stream is not more than ten 
feet wide ; on each side there is a scrub composed of the 

BOOK l] TRA versing the DESERT. 17 

Wu-tuiig tree ; the foreigner, cutting down some wood, 
made a bridge and spread over it brandies, filling it up 
with sand. Thus they led over the horses and went on. 
The Master of the Law having crossed the river was 
filled with joy. Being fatigued, he dismounted and sought 
some repose. The foreign guide also, separated about 
fifty paces or so from the Master, spread his mat on the 
ground and so they both slept. After a while the guide 
took his knife in his hand, and rising up, approached 
towards the Master of the Law ; when about ten paces 
off, he turned round. Not knowing what his intention 
was, and being in doubt about the matter, the Master 
rose from his mat and repeated some Scripture, and called 
on Kwan-yin Bodhisattva. The foreigner having seen 
this went back, and slept. 

At the first dawn of day the Master called to him 
and bade him fetch water. Having washed and taken 
some little food, he purposed to go onwards. The guide 
said : " Your disciple is leading you forward on a way 
full of danger and very remote ; there is no water or grass ; 
only beyond the fifth tower ^ there is water. It will be 
necessary to go there at night-time and get the water 
and pass on. But if at any one place we are perceived, 
we are dead men! Is it not better to return and be 
at rest ? " The Master of the Law having positively 
refused to return, they both went forward.^ (Now 
the guide), with his knife drawn and his bow strung, 
begged the Master to go on in front; but the Master 
of the Law would not consent to the proposal. The 
foreigner going by himself, after a few li stopped and 
said : " Your disciple can go no further — he has great 
family concerns to attend to, and he is not willing to 
transgress the laws of his country." The Master of the 
Law, knowing his purpose, let him go back. 

1 So Julien translates it ; but I think the meaning is, that water could 
only be found in the neighbourhood {under) the jive watch towers. 

2 'J'he expression denotes that tlie guide kept looking up and down. 


The young foreigner replied : " It is impossible for 
the Master to carry out his plan : how can you avoid 
being seized and brought back ? " 

The Master of the Law answered : " Though they 
cause my body to be cut up as small as the very dust, 
I will never return ; and I here take an oath to this." 

So the matter rested; he gave the young man his 
horse ^ as a mark of his obligation to him, and so they 

And now, alone and deserted, he traversed the sandy 
waste ; his only means of observing the way being the 
heaps of bones and the horse-dung, and so on ; thus 
slowly and cautiously advancing, he suddenly saw a body 
of troops, amounting to several hundreds, covering the 
sandy plain; sometimes they advanced and sometimes 
they halted. The soldiers were clad in fur and felt. 
And now the appearance of camels and horses, and the 
glittering of standards and lances met his view ; then 
suddenly fresh forms and figures changing into a thousand 
shapes appeared, sometimes at an immense distance and 
then close at hand, and then they dissolved into nothing. 

The Master of the Law when he first beheld the sight 
thought they were robbers, but when he saw them come 
near and vanish, he knew that they were the halluci- 
nations of demons.^ Again, he heard in the void sounds 
of voices crying out : " Do not fear ! do not fear ! '* ^ 
On this he composed himself, and having pushed on 
eighty li or so, he saw the first watch-tower. Fearing 
lest the lookouts should see him, he concealed himself 
in a hollow of sand until night; then going on west 
of the tower, he saw the water; and going down, he 
drank and washed his hands. Then as he was fiUinsf 
his water-vessel with water an arrow whistled past 

^ That is, probably, the horse on nessed in these deserts, would suggest 

which the young man rode, see p. 15. the connection of the Chinese symbols 

2 For a similar account, vide Raw- Mo-kia with the word Maga. [AIo- 

linson, Ancient Monarchies, iii. 49. Ma-pen, however, is the Chinese form 

2 The account of the illusions wit- of the (Taida) Makan desert.] 


him and just grazed his knee, and in a moment another 
arrow. Knowing then that he was discovered, he cried 
with a loud voice: "I am a priest come from the 
capital • do not shoot me ! " Then he led his horse 
towards the tower, whilst the men on guard opening the 
gate, came out ; after looking at him they saw that 
he was indeed a priest, and so they entered in together 
to see the commander of the guard-house, whose name 
was Wang-siang. Wang, having ordered the fire to be 
well lit up for the purpose of inspecting the Master, 
said : " This is no priest of our country of Ho-si,-^ he is 
indeed one from the capital : *' then he asked him about 
his object in travelling. 

The Master of the Law replied : " Captain ! have you 
not heard men of Liang- chow talk about a priest named 
Hiuen-Tsiang, who was about to proceed to the country 
of the Brahmans to seek for the Law ? " He answered : 
" I have beard that Hiuen-Tsiang has returned already 
to the East. Why have you come here ? " The Master 
of the Law then took him to his horse, and showed him 
various places on which were written his name and 
familiar title. On this the other was convinced. He 
then said : " Sir, the western road is dangerous and 
long, you cannot succeed in your plan. But I have no 
fault to find with you. I myself am a man of Tun- 
hwang and I will conduct you there. There is a 
Master of the Law there called Chang-kiau, he reveres 
men of virtue (sages) and honours the priesthood : he 
will be rejoiced to see you : I ask your consent to this." 

The Master of the Law replied : " My birthplace is 
Lo-yang ; from a child I have been zealous for religion ; 
in both capitals all those engaged in the study of the 
Law, in Wu and Shuh the most eminent priests without 
exception, have come to me for instruction ; for their 
sakes I have explained and discussed and preached on 
religion; and I may boldly say that I am the leading 

1 That is, of Tangut, 


authority of the time. If I wished for further renown 
and encouragement, should I seek a patron at Tun- 
hwang ? But l.ieing afflicted because I found the sacred 
books of the religion of Buddha were not always in 
agreement, and were imperfect, forgetful of my own 
comfort and disregarding all dangers, I have sworn to go 
to the West to seek for the Law bequeathed to the 
world. But you, my patron, instead of rousing me to 
effort in my undertaking, would exhort me rather to turn 
back and give it up. How then can you profess to have 
in common with myself a distaste for the follies of life, 
and wish with me to plant the seed, leading to Nirvana ? 
But if you must needs detain me here — let me be 
punished with death ! Hiuen-Tsiang will never return 
one step to the East, nor give up his first intention ! " 

Siang, hearing these words, filled with emotion, said : 
" I am indeed fortunate in having met with you ! How 
can I but rejoice ? But now, sir, you are fatigued and 
worn ; take some sleep before the day dawns. I will 
then myself conduct you, and show you the proper route." 
He then spread out a mat for him to rest upon. 

When the morning came, the Master of the Law 
having taken some food, Siang sent a man to fill his 
water- vessel, and providing him with some cakes made of 
flour, he himself conducted him for ten li or so, and then 
he said : — " From this point, sir, the road goes straight 
on to the fourth watch-tower ; the man there is a good- 
hearted person ; moreover, he is a near relation of mine. 
His family name is Wang, his private name is Pi-lung. 
When you come to see him you can say that I have sent 
you to him." Then, with tearful salutations, they parted. 

Having gone on till night he came to the fourth 
watch-tower, and fearing lest he should be detained {the 
danger of detention), he purposed to get some water 
quietly, and to go on. Coming to the water, and scarcely 
there, there came an arrow flying towards him ; turning 
round he called out as before, and went forward to the 

fiooKi.] LOSES TUB TRACK. 2t 

tower. Then the men coming down, he entered the 
building. The officer of the tower having spoken to him, 
he answered : — " I purpose going to India, and my way 
is in this direction. Wang-siang, the officer of the first 
tower, has commissioned me to meet you." Hearing 
this he was much pleased, and detained him for the 
night ; moreover, he gave him a great leather bottle for 
w^ater, and fodder for his horse. Then conducting him 
by his side he said: — ''You had better not, sir, go 
towards the fifth tower, for the men there are rude and 
violent, and some mishap may befall you. About lOO 
li from this is the Ye-ma spring, where you can replenish 
your supply of water." 

Having gone on from this he forthwith entered on the 
Ifo-kia-Ten desert, which is about 800 U in extent. 
The old name for it is Sha-ho.^ There are no birds 
overhead, and no beasts below ; there is neither water 
nor herb to be found. On occasions, according to the 
sun^s shadow, he would, with the utmost devotion, in- 
voke the name of Kwan-shai-yin Bodhisattva, and also 
(recite) the Pan-jo-sin Sutra (Frajna-pdramUa-hridaya 

At first when the Master of the Law was dwelling in 
Slnih he saw a diseased man whose body was covered 
with ulcers, his garments tattered and filthy. Pitying 
the man he took him to his convent, and gave him 
clothing and food ; the sick man, moved by a feeling of 
deep gratitude, gave to the Master of the Law this little 
Sutra-book, and on this account he was in the habit of 
reciting it continually. Arriving at the Sha-ho as he 
passed through it, he encountered all sorts of demon 
shapes and strange goblins, w^hich seemed to surround 
him behind and before. Although he invoked the name 
of Kwan-Yin, he could not drive them all away ; but 

1 That is, the Sandy desert {Sand-river), 

±2 fBE LIFE OP titVEN-fSiANG. [book t. 

when he recited this Sutra/ at the sound of the words 
they all disappeared in a moment. Whenever he was in 
danger, it was to this alone that he trusted for his safety 
and deliverance. 

After going a hundred li or so, he lost his way, and 
searching for the fountain called Ye-ma he could not 
find it, to get water from. Then when he was going 
to drink from the pipe of his water- vessel, because of 
its weight it slipped from his hands, and the water was 
wasted; thus, a supply enough for looo li was lost in 
a moment.^ Then again, because of the winding char- 
acter of the road, he did not know which way to follow 
it. At length, purposing to return eastward to the 
fourth watch-tower, after going ten 1% he thought thus 
within himself, " I made a vow at the first that if I did 
not succeed in reaching India I would never return a 
step to the East ; what then am I now doing here ? It 
is better to die in the attempt to go to the West, than to 
live by returning to the East." Then turning his bridle 
he invoked Kioan-Yin, and proceeded in a north-west 

At this time {as he looked) in the four directions, the 
view was boundless ; there were no traces either of man 
or horse, and in the night the demons and goblins raised 
fire-lights as many as the stars ; in the day-time the 
driving wind blew the sand before it as in the season of 
rain. But notwithstanding all this his heart was un- 
affected by fear ; but he suffered from want of water, and 
was so parched with thirst that he could no longer go 
forward. Thus for four nights and five days not a drop 
of water had he to wet his throat or mouth ; his stomach 
was racked with a burning heat, and he was well-nigh 
thoroughly exhausted. And- now not being able to 
advance he lay down to rest on the sands, invoking 

1 This SMra is regarded by the although he professed to despise 

Chinese as a Mantra, or charm, to Buddhism, used to repeat it from 

the present day. One of my native memory, 

teachers (when I was in China), 2 Yih-chiu = in a trice. 

feooK l] ADVA NCBS TO WA RDS 1-G V. 2 j 

Kwan- Yin without intermission, although worn out with 
sufferings. And as he addressed the Bodhisattva, he 
said :— " Hiuen-Tsiang in adventuring this journey does 
not seek for riches or worldly profit, he desires not to 
acquire fame, but only for the sake of the highest reli- 
gious truth does his heart long to find the true Law. I 
know that the Bodhisattva lovingly regards all living 
creatures to deliver them from misery ! Will not mine, 
bitter as they are, come to his knowledge ! " 

Thus he spake, (graying) with earnest heart and with- 
out cessation the while, till the middle of the fifth night, 
when suddenly a cool wind fanned {touched) his body, 
cold and refreshing as a bath of icy water. His eyes 
forthwith recovered their power of sight and his horse 
had strength to get up. His body being thus refreshed, 
he lay still and fell asleep for a little while. Whilst he 
slept thus he had a dream, and in his sleep he thought 
he saw a mighty spiritual being, several chang ^ in height, 
holding in his hand a halberd used for signalling, who 
spake thus *Why are you still sleeping and not pressing 
on with all your might ? " 

The Master of the Law, rousing himself from slumber, 
pushed on for ten 1% when his horse suddenly started 
oif another way and could not be brought back or turned. 
Having gone some li in the new direction, he saw all at 
once several acres of green grass ; getting off his horse, 
he let him graze; when leaving the grass, purposing to 
resume his journey, about ten paces off he came to a pool 
of water, sweet, and bright as a mirror; dismounting 
again, he drank without stint, and so his body and vital 
powers were restored once more, and both man and horse 
obtained refreshment and ease. Now we may conclude 
that this water and grass were not natural supplies, but 
undoubtedly were produced through the loving pity of 
Bodhisattva, and it is a proof of his guileless character 
and spiritual power.^ 

1 A chang is = 141 English inches. 

* This passage is apparently parenthetical, and is not translated by Julien. 

24 The life of HIUEN-TSIANG. [bookI. 

Having bivouacked near the grass and fountain of 
water for a day, on the day following he filled his water- 
vessel and cut some grass, and proceeded onward. After 
two days more they got out of the desert and arrived at 
I-gu. The myriads of dangers and difficulties through 
which he passed cannot be recounted in detail. Having 
arrived at I-gu, he stopped in a temple where there were 
three Chinese priests ; one was an old man whose vest- 
ment was without any girdle, and whose feet were bare. 
Coming forth, he embraced the Master of the Law, with 
many cries and piteous exclamations which he could not 
restrain ; but at length he said, " How could I have 
hoped at this time, ever to have seen again a man of my 
own country ? " The Master of the Law likewise, as he 
saw him, was moved to tears. 

The foreign priests outside, and the foreign kings 
also, came to pay their respects to him (i.e. IRuen- 
Tsiang). The king invited him to his own house and 
provided him with abundance of entertainment. 

At this time the king of Kau-chang, Khio-wen-t'ai, had 
previously sent some messengers to I-gu, and on this day 
as they were about to return they met the Master of the 
Law. Accordingly when they had got back they told 
the king (of his arrival). The king hearing it, immedi- 
ately sent messengers to order the king of I-gu to send the 
Master of the Law to him. Moreover the king selected 
several tens of superior horses and sent his officers and 
chief ministers to escort him to his presence. After the 
usual delay of ten days, the king's messengers came and 
explained the king's plan, and then they earnestly besought 
him to comply with the arrangement. The Master of 
the Law had purposed in his mind to take (the road 
leading) past the Mausoleum (Feou-tu, Stupa) of the 
Khan, but now, notwithstanding his respectful refusal of 
the king of Kau-chang's request, he could not escape 
from it — and so was obliged to go. Crossing the southern 
desert, after six days they came to the borders of Kau- 


chang, to the town of Pih-li. And now, the sun just 
set, the Master of the Law wished to stop in this town, 
but the magistrates and the messengers said, " The royal 
city is near — we beg you to advance — there are several 
relays of horses in front." The Master of the Law left 
his old red horse which he had ridden hitherto behind, 
to be sent on afterwards, and then in the middle of the 
night they reached the royal city. The officer of the guard 
at the gate having informed the king, he commanded the 
gate to be opened. 

When the Master of the Law entered the city, the 
king, surrounded by his attendants in front and rear, 
bearing lighted torches, came forth in person to meet 
him. The Master of the Law having entered the inner 
hall, took his seat beneath a precious canopy in a pavilion 
of two stages. After salutation the king said in a most 
agreeable manner, *' From the time that I knew of your 
honour's name, my happiness has prevented me from 
sleeping or eating ; after calculating the distance of the 
road, I was sure you would arrive to-night, and therefore 
my wife and children with myself have taken no sleep, 
but reading the Sacred Books, have awaited your arrival 
with respect." 

A moment after, the queen, with several tens of 
servant- women, came in to pay her respects. 

And now as the day-dawn came on, he said : " After a 
fatiguing journey I have a wish to sleep." The king 
hereupon retired to his palace and left several eunuchs 
to wait on him during the night. 

Then in the morning before the Master of the Law 
had arisen, the king in person, with the queen also, and 
her followers, waiting below, came to the door to salute 
him : after which the king said : " Your disciple (ix, 
the king) cannot but think how wonderful it is that you 
by yourself alone should have been able to surmount 
the difficulties and dangers of the road in coming hither." 
And in saying these words he could not refrain from 

i6 THk LIFE OF tilUEN-TSIANGr. [boos t 

tears and exclamations of wonder. After this lie ordered 
food to be provided according to the rules of religion. 
Moreover, by the side of the palace there was an oratory 
to which the king himself conducted the Master of the 
Law and installed him there. Moreover, he commissioned 
certain eunuchs to wait on him and guard him. 

In this convent there was a certain Master of the Law 
called Tiin who formerly studied at Chang'an and was well 
versed in the details of religion. The king, who highly 
esteemed him, commissioned him to go visit the Master 
of the Law. After a short interview he left, on which 
the king again ordered a Master of the Law called 
Kwo-tong-wang, about eighty years of age, to take up 
his residence with the Master of the Law, with a view to 
persuade him to remain where he was and not to go to 
the Western regions. The Master of the Law was un- 
willing to assent, and after ten days' delay he wished to 
be allowed to go on his way. The king said : " I have 
already commissioned the Master Tong to confer with 
you and request you to remain here. What, sir, is 
your intention ? " 

The Master replied, " To request me to remain here is 
surely an act of goodness on the part of the king, but 
truly my heart cannot consent." 

The king replied : " When I travelled in the great 
country (i.e. China) with my teacher during the Sui 
emperors' time, I visited in succession the Eastern and 
Western capitals, and the country between Yen-tai and 
Fen-tsin and I saw many renowned priests, but my 
heart felt no affection for them : but from the time I 
heard the name of the Master of the Law my body and 
soul have been filled with joy, my hands have played 
and my feet have danced. Let me persuade you, sir, to 
remain with me here. I will provide for your wants to 
the end of my life, and I will undertake that all the 
people of my realm shall become your disciples, if, as I 

Bookl] the ring uses THREATS. if 

hope, you on your part will instruct them. The priests 
and their'followers, although not numerous, still amount 
to several thousands. I will cause them to take the 
Sacred book m hand (which yoiv select) and to attend 
with the rest to your instructions. I pray you accede 
to my desire and earnest request, and do not think of 
going on your journey to the West." 

The Master, in declining the invitation, said : " How can 
I, a poor and solitary priest, sufficiently acknowledge the 
king's generosity. But I undertook this journey not 
with a view to receive religious offerings. Grieved at 
the imperfect knowledge of religion in my native land, 
and the poorness and defective condition of the Sacred 
Texts, and being myself agitated by doubts as to the 
truth, I determined to go and find out the truth for 
myself. Hence at the risk of my life I have set out for 
the West, to inquire after interpretations not yet known. 
My purpose is that the sweet dew of the expanded law ^ 
shall not only water Kapila, but that the mysterious words 
may also spread through the regions of the East. The 
thought of fi^nding my way through the mountains and 
my earnest desire to seek a friend of illustrious ability, 
this has, day by day, strengthened my purpose ; why then 
would you cause me to stop midway ! I pray your 
majesty to change your mind, and do not overpower me 
with an excessive friendship." 

The king replied, " I am moved by an overpowering 
affection towards you ; and the Master of the Law must 
stop here and receive my religious offerings. The Ts'ung 
Ling Mountains may fall down, but my purpose cannot 
change. Be assured of my sincerity and do not doubt 
my real affection." 

The Master of the Law answered : " What need is 
there of so many words to prove the deep regard the 

1 Fang-teng; an expression (omitted to the " breadth and widtli" {squared- 
by Julien) commonly used for the equally) of this class of book. Of. 
Vaipulya class of Stitras. It points the So. Vipula, 


king has for me ? But Hiuen-Tsiang has come to the 
West for the sake of the Law, and as he has not yet 
obtained his object he cannot halt in the middle of his 
enterprise. Wherefore I respectfully request to be 
excused, and that your majesty would put yourself in my 
place. Moreover, your august majesty in days gone by 
has prepared an excellent field of merit, and so has 
become a ruler of men. 'Not only are you the preserver 
and sustainer of your subjects, but you are also the 
protector of the doctrine of Buddha. It is only reason- 
able therefore that you should support and disseminate 
(the principles of religion). How then is it that you 
are now opposing that end ? " 

The king replied : " IsTever would I venture to place 
obstacles in the way of the diffusion of Eeligion ; but 
because my realm has no teacher and guide, I would 
therefore detain the Master of the Law, in order that he 
may convert the ignorant and foolish." 

But the Master of the Law continued to excuse him- 
self and would not consent (to remain). 

Then the king, colouring with anger and stretching 
out his hand beyond the sleeve, said, in loud words and a 
menacing manner : '' I have a different way of deciding 
this question, sir 1 If, sir, you still think you can go 
when you like, I will detain you here by force and send 
you back to your own country. I commend you to 
think over this ; it will be better for you to obey." 

The Master answered : " Hiuen-Tsiang has come here 
for the sake of the great Law, indeed ! and now I have 
met with one who opposes me — but you have only power 
over my body, your majesty cannot touch my will or my 

And now he could speak no more on account of his 
frequent sighs, but the king remained unmoved ; still he 


caused an additional supply of necessary provisions, and 
each day he pressed on him food provided from the 
king's own store. 

The Master of the Law, seeing that he would be 
detained by force in opposition to his original design, 
declared with an oath that he would eat nothing, in order 
to affect the king's heart. So he sat in a grave posture, 
and during three days he neither ate nor drank ; on the 
fourth day the king seeing that the Master was becoming 
fainter and fainter, overcome with shame and sorrow, he 
bowed down to the ground before him and said : " The 
Master of the Law has free permission to go to the West ! 
I pray you take a slight morning meal ! " 

The Master of the Law still fearing his insincerity, 
required him to repeat his words with his hand pointing 
to the sun. The king answered : " If it needs be so, let 
ns both go into the presence of Buddha, and bind our- 
selves mutually together \ " Accordingly they went both 
together into the sacred precinct and paid adoration to 
Buddha, With them was the royal mother, and the 
Empress Chang. So regarding the Master of the Law as 
a brother, he gave him free permission to go and seek for 
the Law. " But," he added, '' when you return I request 
you to stop in this kingdom for three years to receive 
my offerings ; and if in future ages you arrive at the 
condition of a Buddha,, grant that I, like Prasenajita 
or Bimbasara rajas, may be permitted to protect and 
patronise you ! " 

Then he invited him to remain one month and to 
expound the Sutra called Jin-wang-pan-jo,^ in order that 
during the interval the king might prepare travelling 
garments for the Master. The Master giving his full 
consent, the empress was greatly rejoiced and desired 
to be connected with the Master in close relationship 
during successive ages. 

^ Of. Nanjio's Catalogue, No. 17. 


Then the Master consented to eat • (from this we can 
see) the firmness of his will and determination. 

And now on a day following the king prepared a large 
pavilion for the purpose of beginning the religious con- 
ferences ; the pavilion could seat three hundred persons 
or so ; the empress sat on the right of the king ; the 
masters and chief nobles, all took different seats, to 
attend the preaching. 

Every day at the time of preaching, the king himself 
conducted the Master, preceding him with a brazier con- 
taining incense. When ascending the pulpit the king, 
humbly bowing, placed his foot-stool and begged him to 
mount and be seated. Day by day this was done. 
After the sermon he begged the Master of the Law to 
arrange for four Sr^maneras to wait upon him and to 
make thirty priests' vestments ; and considering that the 
western regions are very cold, he had various articles of 
clothing made suitable for such a climate, such as face- 
coverings, gloves, leather boots, and so on. Moreover he 
gave him a hundred gold ounces, and three myriads of 
silver pieces, with iave hundred rolls of satin and taffeta, 
enough for the outward and home journey of the Master 
during twenty years. He gave him also thirty horses 
and twenty-four servants {hand-hel;ps). Moreover he 
commissioned Hun -Sin, one of the imperial censors 
belonging to his court, to conduct him to the Khan 
Yeh-hu.-"- Again he composed twenty-four official docu- 
ments to be presented at Kiu-chi and twenty-four different 
countries ; each letter had a large roll of satin, accom- 
panying it as a credential. Lastly, he loaded two con- 
veyances with five hundred pieces of satin and taffeta, 
and fruit of luscious taste, as a present for the Khan 
Yeh-hu. Accompanying this present was a letter to the 
following purport : " The Master of the Law, a friend 

1 Jul] en has Che-hu> and probably this is not so much a personal name, 
he is right. It appears to me that as a titular rank. 


of your humble servant, desires to search for the Law in 
the country of the Brahmans : I beseech the Khan to be 
kind to him, as he has ever been kind to me, his humble 
servant/' He requested also that he would require the 
rulers of the different countries of the West to conduct 
the" Master through their territories and provide relays 
of horses. 

The Master of the Law, seeing that the king sent the 
novices, and these letters, and the silks and satins, &c., 
with him, was overpowered by a sense of his extraordinary 
liberality, and made the following grateful oration to 
him, saying : — 

" Hiuen-Tsiang has heard that whoever would traverse 
the deep expanse of ocean or river must use boat and 
oar — so those who would rescue (guide) the body of 
living creatures engulphed (in ignorance), must avail 
themselves of the holy words (of Buddha). Now for 
this cause Tathdgata, exercising his great love as of one 
towards an only son, was born on this much-polluted 
earth, reflecting in himself the wisdom of the three 
enlightenments (vidyds), and, as the sun, illuminating the 
darkness. The cloud of his love hovered over the summit 
of the heavens of the universe ; and the rain of the law 
watered the borders of the three thousand worlds (the 
Chiliocosm), After procuring advantage and quiet, he 
quitted the world for the state of true peace — and his 
bequeathed doctrine has spread Eastwards for six hundred 
years past. His illustrious doctrine stretched through 
the country of Hu and Lo, and has shone as a radiant 
star in Tsin and Liang. 

" In agreement with the mysterious character of this 
doctrine the world has progressed in its higher destiny ; 
only distant people coming to interpret the doctrine (the 
sounds of his doctrine) are not in agreement. The time 
of the Holy One is remote from us : and so the sense of 
his doctrine is differently expounded : but as the taste of 
the fruit of different trees of the same kind is the same, 


SO the principles of the schools as they now exist are not 
different. The contentions of the North and South have 
indeed for many hundred years agitated our land with 
doubts, and no able master has been found able to dispel 

" Hiuen-Tsiang owing to his former deserts was privi- 
leged at an .early date to adopt the religious life, and 
till he had completed about twenty years, received instruc- 
tion from his masters. The famous sages and eminent 
friends were all carefully consulted and questioned by 
him. The principles of the Great and Little Vehicle were 
each briefly investigated by him. 

" His hand never ceased to examine the different Sacred 
Books, but notwithstanding all his pains he was never 
free from doubts, until, wearied with his perplexities, he 
longed to wend his way to the monastery of the Jetavana, 
and to bend his steps to the Vulture Peak, that he might 
there pay his adoration and be satisfied as to his diffi- 
culties. But at the same time he knew that the heavens 
could not be measured with an inch-tube, nor the ocean 
be sounded by a cock's feather. 

" But he could not give up the purpose which humbly 
inspired him with resolution, and so making preparation 
he set out on his way, and through much painful travel 
arrived at I-gu. 

" I respectfully desire that your majesty, possessed of 
the harmonising influences of heaven and earth, and 
inspired by the soothing power of the two principles,^ 
may exercise your authority with advantage to all your 
subjects. Your renown stretches to the East as far as 
China, to the West the hundred tribes of uncivilised 
people, the lands of Leou-lan and of the Yue-ti, the 
districts of Kiu-sse and Long-wang, all acknowledge 
your profound virtues, and are obliged to you for your 
condescending qualities, and in addition, your respect 

1 Tliat is, as it would seem, the two principles that pervade Nature | the 
panf/ and pin, 


for learned men and your love for erudition, exhibit 
themselves in your loving attention to their advantage. 

" Having learned of my arrival, your majesty has been 
graciously pleased to order me escorts, and provisions for 
my entertainment. Since I came your goodness has 
continually increased and you have allowed me to dis- 
course publicly on religious subjects. You have moreover 
condescended to allow me the title of ' brother,' and have 
entrusted me with letters of recommendation to the 
Princes of twenty and more kingdoms of the West; 
you have invited them to show me consideration and 
kindness, and ordered them to provide me with necessary 
escort and provisions in proceeding from one district to 
another. Excited by pity for the wants of a poor pil- 
grim who is finding his way to Western countries, and on 
account of the rigours of the climate which will affect him 
on his journey, you have ordered four novices to accompany 
him, and you have provided for his use religious vest- 
ments, padded caps, boots, and other articles of clothing. 

'' Lastly, you have added gifts of silks and taffetas, and 
a large quantity of money, gold and silver, to provide 
for his wants during twenty years in coming and going. 
I am overpowered by a sense of my obligation, and know 
not how to return sufficient thanks. The waters of the 
united Eivers ^ do not equal in amount your royal gifts ; 
the Tsu'ng-ling mountains are small and light compared 
with the abundance of your benefits. 

"What anxious fear can T now have in facing the passage 
of the ice-bound glaciers ? ^ — no anxiety will afflict me 
lest I should be too late to pay my reverence at the spots 
where stand "the heavenly ladder" (at Kapatha), and 
"the tree of wisdom" (at Gay 4). By acceding to my 
wishes you have placed me under this obligation, and 
to your kind offices all is due. 

" After questioning the different masters and receiving 

1 Ju lien gives'Hlie Yellow River;" tu," But the text has ling k'% re- 
which may be right. ferring probably to the ' Muzart 

2 Julien translates *'of the Hiueii- Pass. 


from their mouths the explanation of the true doctrine, 
I shall return to my own country and there translate 
the books I have obtained. Thus shall be spread abroad 
a knowledge of unknown doctrines; I shall unravel the 
tangle of error and destroy the misleading influences 
of false teaching ; I shall repair the deficiencies of the 
bequeathed doctrine of Buddha, and fix the aim of the 
mysterious teaching (0/ the schools), 

" Perchance by these meritorious works I may in some 
degree repay your large beneficence — but considering 
the greatness of the task before me {the distance of the 
road), I can delay no further; to-morrow I must take 
leave of your majesty, and this causes me much pain. 

** I can only, in consideration of your majesty's goodness, 
offer the tribute of my sincere gratitude." 

The king, in reply, said : " You have, respected Master, 
allowed me to regard you as- a brother, and therefore you 
have the right to share with me the wealth of my king- 
dom. Why then offer me so many thanks ? " 

On the day of his departure the king, with the 
religious community and the great ministers and people, 
escorted him to without the city on his way to the West ; 
then the king and the people embraced him with tears, 
and their cries and groans resounded on every side. 

After this the king ordered the queen and the rest to 
return home, but he and his suite, with the chief of the 
religious community, accompanied the pilgrim for several 
scores of K 

The princes and chiefs of the other kingdoms did so 
likewise, paying him the utmost respect. 

After this he journeyed westward, and after passing 
through the towns of Wu-pwan and To-tsin, he entered 
the country of 0-ki-ni (Yenki).-^ 

1 Probably equivalent to Yanghi, up the Pilgrim's route as detailed in 
as i?i Yanghi-Hissar. We here take the Si-yu-ki, 



Commencing with 0-hi-n% and ending with Kie-jo-Mo-she 

Fkom this, going westward, he came to the kingdom of 
0-ki-ni ; ^ here is the fountain of A-f a ^ the Master. The 
fountain is situated to the south of the road on a sandy- 
hillock. The hillock is several chang in height, and the 
water comes from the hill half way up. 

The tradition says: There was formerly a band of 
merchantmen, several hundred in number, who found 
their supply of water exhausted on their mid-journey. 
Arriving at this point exhausted and worn out, they 
knew not what to do. At this time there was a priest 
in their company, who had brought no provisions for the 
journey, but relied on the alms of the rest for his sup- 
port. The others considering the case, said : " This 
priest serves Buddha : on this account we, as a company, 
give him our offerings. Although he has travelled ten 
thousand l\ he has had no provision of his own — and 
now, whilst we are full of anxiety, he is unmoved by 
any care : we ought to ask him about it." 

The priest, in reply to their question, said : " You, sirs, 
who are anxious to get a supply of water, ought each 
one of you to adore Buddha, and receive the three Eef uges 
and take on you the five moral obligations. Then I will, 
for, your sakes, ascend yonder hill and cause a supply of 
water to proceed from it." 

The entire company, having arrived at such a con- 

1 Cf. Records of the Western World, 2 Possibly connected with the Sc. 
vol, i. p. 17 ss. Ap or Apsu. 


dition of distress, agreed to his order, and received 
the rules of moral obligation ; after which the priest 
instructed them thus : " After I have gone up the hill 
you must cry out ^ A-fu-sse 1 cause water to flow down 
for our use ! enough to sustain us.' " With these words 
he left them. After a little while the company called 
out and requested, as he had instructed them. In a 
moment the water began to descend in supplied sufficient 
for their necessity. 

The whole congregation were filled with joy and 
gratitude ; but as the Master did not return they went 
in a body up the hill to see what had happened, and 
found that he was dead (become extinct). And now 
having wept and lamented, they burnt his body according 
to the rules of the Western world ; on the place where 
they found him they collected stones and made a tower, 
which still exists. Moreover, the water has not ceased 
to flow, but, according to the number of the travellers 
who pass by this place, it flows down for their use, in 
'Small or large supply. If there is no one there, the 
fountain dries up (is a mere secretion). 

The Master of the Law, with the rest, passed the night 
near the fountain. At sunrise he went on and crossed 
the '' Silver Mountain." This mountain is very high and 
extensive. It is from this place that the silver is dug 
which supplies the Western countries with their silver 

On the west of the mountain he encountered a band 
of robbers ; after giving them what they demanded, they 

After a little they came to the place of the site of the 
royal city, and passed the night by the side of a stream. 
At this time some foreign merchants in their company, 
to the number of several tens, coveting an early sale of 
their merchandise, privately went forward in the middle 
of the night. Scarcely had they gone ten li when they 


met a band of robbers who murdered every one of them. 
And so, when the Master of the Law and the others came 
to the place, they found their dead bodies there, but 
all their riches gone; they passed on, deeply affected 
with the sight, and shortly afterwards they saw the royal 
city before them. 

The king of 0-ki-ni (with his ministers) coming forth 
to meet (the Master of the Law), conducted him, and 
invited him to enter (the Palace) as his guest. This 
country formerly was subjected to attacks from brigands 
belonging to Kau-chang, and as there was still ill feeling 
(between the two countries, the king) was not willing to 
provide an escort.^ 

The Master of the Law, stopping one night, went for- 
wards and crossed a great river. To the west he traversed 
a level valley, and after going several hundred li he arrived 
at the borders of the kingdom of K'iu-chi \_formerly written 
Kivi-tzu, hut incorrectly]. As he approached the capital, 
the king, accompanied by his ministers and a celebrated 
priest called Mo-cha-kiu-to (Mokshagwpta^ or Mokshahuta)^ 
came forth to meet him; other priests, to the number of 
several thousands, had remained at the eastern gate of 
the city, outside which they had erected a wide floating 
pavilion (pointed like a tent), and having brought the 
images (of Buddha) in procession, with sounds of music, 
had placed them there. 

The Master of the Law having arrived, the priests 
rising to meet him, addressed him in affectionate language, 
and then each one returned to his seat. They then 
caused a priest to offer to the Master of the Law a 
bouquet of flowers freshly gathered. The Master of the 
Law having accepted it, advanced before the image of 
Buddha, scattering the flowers and offering worslnp. 
After this Mokshagupta took his seat beside him. The 
two being seated, the priests again formed a procession 

1 As Julien remarks, we must remember that Hiuen-Tsiang was accom- 
panied by an escort from Kau-chang. 

3^ THE LIFE OF HIUEN-fSIApJG. [book il. 

with flowers {in their hands) y after which they offered 
grape juice as they passed. Having thus accepted flowers 
and grape juice in the first temple, he next received the 
same in the other temples, and thus going the round, the 
day began to decline, and the priests and their attendants 
gradually dispersed. 

There were several decades of men belonging to Kau- 
chang who had become monks in K'iu-chi ; they dwelt 
apart in one particular temple ; this temple was to the 
south-east of the city. As the Master of the Law came 
from their native country, they were the first to invite 
him to stop the night with them. Because he accepted 
this invitation the king and the priests returned each to 
his own abode. The next day the king iavited him to 
pass over to his palace to receive every kind of religious 
offerings and the three pure aliments.-^ The Master of the 
Law would not accept them, at which the king was very 
vexed; the Master of the Law replied, ''This is the 
license granted by the 'gradual' system of the Law; 
but the Great Vehicle in which Hiuen-Tsiang has been 
instructed, does not admit of it. I will accept the other 
reserved food." 

Having finished his repast, he proceeded in a north- 
west direction from the city to the temple called '0-she 
li-ni ^ where the priest Mokshagupta resided. Gupta by 
his rare ability and intelligence had acquired the respect 
of all the different schools of religion. He had travelled 
in India for twenty years and more, learning {the Sacred 
Boohs), Although he had gone through all the Sutras, 
yet he excelled in the knowledge of the Shing-ming 
{Sdhdavidyd Sutra). The king and the people of the 
kingdom were all affected by the utmost respect for him, 
and had named him Tuh-po {without equal). When he 
saw the Master of the Law come to his abode, he received 

1 For the "three pure aliments," and the •* gradual system, " mc?e Jul, 
ii. 2 n. 

2 Vide Records, cfcc, vol. i., p. 22 n. 


him with the politeness due to a guest, not knowing as 
yet his advanced acquaintance with religion. 

Addressing the Master of the Law, he said : " In this 
land we have the Tsa-sin/ the Kin-she,^ the Pi-sha,^ and 
other Sutras; you can gain sufficient knowledge by 
studying these here, without troubling yourself to voyage 
to the West, encountering all sorts of dangers." 

The Master of the Law replied : " And have you here 
the Yoga-Sastra or not ? " 

He answered : " What need ask about such an heretical 
book as that ? The true disciple of Buddha does not 
study such a work ! '' 

The Master of the Law was at first filled with reve- 
rence for the person (of Mohsliagupta)^ but hearing this 
reply he regarded him as dirt, and answering, said : " In 
our country too we have long had the Vibh^sha and 
Kosha ; but I have been sorry to observe their logic 
superficial and their language weak : they do not speak 
of the highest perfection.* On this account I have come 
so far as this, desiring to be instructed in the Yoga 
Sastra belonging to the Great Vehicle. And the Y6ga, 
what is it but the revelation of Maitr^ya, the Bodhisattva 
next to become Buddha (lit., the last ^personal BodJii- 
sattva)y and to call such a book heretical, how is it you 
are not afraid of the bottomless pit ? " 

The other replied : " You have not yet understood the 
Vibhasha and the other Sutras, how can you say they do 
not contain tlie deep principles of religion ? " 

The Master replied : " Do you, sir, at present under- 
stand them ? " He answered, " I have a complete know- 
ledge of them." 

The Master then cited the beginning of the K6sha, 
and asked him to continue. Forthwith he began to 
blunder, and as he came at last to a dead stop, he 

1 Samyukt^bliidarma. ^ The * 'highest perfection" inoul- 

^ The Kosha. cated by the Yoga system of Bud- 

^ The Vibh&sh^. dhism, is, union with the supreme 

object of worship. 


changed colour, and said with perturbation : '' You may 
question me on some other portion of the work." 

Then he referred to another passage, but neither could 
he recite this, but said : " The Sdstra has no such passage 
as the one you name." Now at this time the king's 
uncle, called Chi-Yueh, had become a monk and was 
well acquainted with Siitras and Sastras ; he was on 
this occasion seated by the side (of Hiuen-Tsiang). 
Forthwith, he testified (to the correctness of the quota- 
tion), in these words: "This passage is really taken 
from the Sdstra ; " and then, taking the original, he read 
it out. 

Mokshagupta on this was exceedingly abashed and 
said : " I am getting old and forgetful." 

He was questioned also regarding the other Siitras, 
but could give no correct explanation. 

And now, as the snow-passes of Mount Ling were not 
yet open, the Master could not advance, but was obliged 
to remain, for sixty days or so, detained by this circum- 
stance. On going out to observe the condition of the 
roads, if they happened to meet together and speak (i,e, 
the Master and Mokshagujpta), he did not sit down, but 
spoke either standing, or as if anxious to pass on. And 
in a private way he addressed the people and said : " This 
monk of China is not an easy man to discuss with ; if 
he goes to India the younger class of disciples will be 
unwilling to present themselves {Le, for discussion or 

So much was the Master feared by him and admired. 

The day of his departure having come, the king gave 
him servants and camels and horses, and attended by 
monks and laymen belonging to the capital, he accom- 
panied him for a good distance. 

Going west from this two days' journey, he encountered 
about 2000 Turkish (Ttch-Kiueh) robbers on horseback; 


they were in the act of dividing among themselves the 
booty they had got from a caravan, and when they could 
not agree they began to fight among themselves and so 
were dispersed. 

Then going forward 600 li they crossed a small desert 
and arrived at the kingdom of Poh-luh-kia^ \_formerly called^ 
Kih-mek], and stopped there one night. Then proceeding 
north-west and going 300 li, they crossed a desert and 
came to the Ling^ Mountain, which forms the northern 
angle of the T'sung Ling range. This mountain is steep 
and dangerous, and reaches to the clouds (heaven), 
Froni the creation the perpetual snow which has collected 
here in piles, has been changed into glaciers which melt 
neither in winter nor summer ; the hard-frozen and cold 
sheets of water rise mingling with the clouds; looking 
at them the eye is blinded with the glare, so that it 
cannot long gaze at them. The icy peaks fall down 
sometimes and lie athwart the road, some of them a 
hundred feet high, and others several tens of feet wide. 
On this account the extreme difficulty of climbing over 
the first, and the danger of crossing the others. More- 
over the wind, and the snow driven in confused masses, 
make it difficult to escape an icy coldness of body though 
wrapped in heavy folds of fur-bound garments. When 
desirous of food or sleep there is no dry place to be found 
for a halt ; the only way is to hang the pot for cooking, 
and to spread the mat on the ice for sleeping. 

After seven days they began to get out of the moun- 
tain ; twelve or fourteen of the company were starved 
and frozen to death, whilst the number of the oxen and 
horses that perished was still greater. 

After leaving the mountains they arrived at the lake 
called Tsing.^ The circuit of this lake is 1400 or 1500 
li, longer from east to west, narrower from north to 
south. Looking at the watery expanse, the wind sud- 

1 B41uk^. — Records, <S;c., i. 24. 2 Qp^ ^ii. i. 25 n. 

3 Vide "Eecords," p. 25, n. 80. 


denly arising swells the waves to a height of several 

Following the borders of the sea for about 500 li in a 
north-west direction, the Master came to the city of Su- 
yeh/ Here he encountered the Khan of the Turks called 
Yeh-hu, who was then engaged on a hunting expedition. 
The horses of these barbarous people are very fine ; the 
Khan's person was covered with a robe of green satin, 
and his hair was loose, only it was bound round with a 
silken band some ten feet in length, which was twisted 
round his head and fell down behind. He was sur- 
rounded by about 200 officers, who were all clothed in 
brocade stuff, with their hair braided. On the right and 
left he was attended by independent troops all clothed 
in furs and fine spun hair garments ; they carried lances 
and bows and standards, and were mounted on camels 
and horses. The eye could not estimate their numbers. 

When they saw each other, the Khan, full of joy, said : 
" Stay here for a while ; after two or three days I will 
come back." He then directed one of his chief officers, 
Ta-mo-chi, to conduct him towards a large tent and to 
arrange things for his comfort. After three days in this 
residence the Khan returned, and taking the Master of 
the Law by the hand he conducted him within. 

The tent of the Khan is a large pavilion adorned with 
golden flower ornaments which blind the eye with their 
glitter. All the officers {Ta hwan) had spread out in 
front long mats, in two rows, on which they sat ; they 
were clad in shining garments of embroidered silk. The 
body-guard of the Khan stood behind them. Eegarding 
these circumstances of state, although he was but the 
ruler of a wandering horde, yet there was a certain 
dignified arrangement about his surroundings. 

The Master of the Law proceeding towards the tent, 
when about thirty paces from it, the Khan came forth 
1 Or ''8h4:* 


and conducted him with reverent condescension within, 
speaking to him through an interpreter : they then 
entered and were seated. 

The Turks worship Fire : they do not use wooden seats, 
because wood contains fire, and so even in worship they 
never seat themselves, but only spread padded mats 
on the ground and so go through with it. But for the 
sake of the Master of the Law they brought an iron 
warming-pan covered with a thick padding, ai. _ requested 
him to be seated thereon. A short time afterwards they 
introduced the Chinese mission and the legates from 
Kau-chang with their letters of introduction and presents. 

The Khan examined for himself the one and the other 
and was much pleased thereat; he then ordered the 
envoys to be seated, and caused wine to be offered to 
them with the sound of music. 

The Khan with his ministers drank to the envoys, 
whilst he caused the juice of the grape ^ to be offered 
to the Master of the Law. After this they drank one 
with the other, challenging one another in succession, 
filling their cups and emptying them in succession, ever 
more and more animated, during all which time the 
sounds of all kind of music (Kin, Mae, L% &G.y resounded 
in confused clang. And although the character of the 
music was the common sort of the barbarians, yet it was 
nevertheless very diverting both to the ear and the eye, 
pleasing the thoughts and the mind. 

In a little while there were other articles of food 
brought forward, such as boiled quarters of mutton and 
veal, which were heaped up before the guests : but for 
the Master of the Law they prepared distinct entertain- 
ment, consisting of the pure articles of food such as rice- 
cakes, cream, sugar-candy, honey-sticks (barley-sugar ?), 
raisins, &c, 

1 Pu-fau, cf. the Greek ^Srpvt ^ Mmic of the North, South, East, 
{Kingsmill). and West {Julien in loc). 

44 THE LIFE OF HIUM-TSlANG, [book li. 

When the feast was over they sent round the grape- 
wine again, and then asked the Master of the Law to 
expound (declare) the doctrines of religion. Then he, 
with a view to admonish them, spoke upon the subject of 
the ten precepts (Basasilam), love of preserving life, and 
the P^ramitas, and works that lead to final deliverance. 

Eaising his hands, he (the King) humbly prostrated 
himself to the ground, and joyously accepted the teaching 
of the Master. 

And now having remained there several days, the 
Khan exhorted him to stop altogether, saying : " Sir ; 
you have no need to go to India (In-hc-kia-kwo) ; ^ that 
country is very hot, the tenth month there, is as warm 
as our fifth month : as I regard your appearance I am 
afraid you will succumb under the climate. The men 
there are naked-blacks, without any sense of decorum, and 
not fit to look at ! " 

The Master replied : " Notwithstanding all this I desire 
to go and gaze on the sacred traces, and earnestly to 
search for the law." 

The Khan then ordered inquiry to be made in his 
army for any one who could speak the Chinese language 
and that of other countries. So they found a young man 
who had lived for many years at Chang'an, and thoroughly 
understood the Chinese language. 

He was appointed, under the title of Mo-to-ta-kwan, 
to prepare letters of commendation for the different 
countries and to accompany the Master to the kingdom 
of Kapi^a. Moreover, the Khan gave to Hiuen-Tsiang 
a complete set of vestments in red satin, and fifty pieces 
of silk ; and then with his officers in person he conducted 
him a distance of ten 1% or so. 

From this, going west 400 li or so, he arrived at 
Piug-yu.^ This is also called " The Thousand Springs." 

1 I would caU attention to this unusual form for India, and compare 
the SindhuJca king, named in the "Friendly Letter" of Nag^rjuna. 

2 Myn-bulak (Bingheul) vide Records, dec, i. 27 n. 


The district is several hundred li square. There are a 
multitude of pools and springs here, and also trees won- 
derful for their luxuriant verdure and height. The cool 
refreshing moisture makes this a fit place for the Khan, 
when he would avoid the heat of summer. 

From Ping-yu, advancing westward 150 1% we come 
to the town of Ta-lo-sse (Taras), Again going south-west 
200 li, we come to the town of Peh-shwui ; again going 
south-west 200 1% we come to Kong-yu city ; again going 
south 50 Z^, we come to the kingdom of Nu-chih-kien; 
again going west 200 li, we come to the kingdom of 
Che-shi. [_T/iis means '' The stone country,'' Ch. EdJ] This 
country, on the west, borders on the river Yeh-yeh (or, 
She-She). Again going west 1000 li or so, we come to the 
kingdom of Su-tu-li-sse-na. To the east this kingdom 
borders on the Yeh-yeh river. This river comes from the 
northern plateau of the Ts'ung-Ling Mountains and flows 
to the north-west. Again going north-west, we enter 
on a great desert without water or grass. We advance 
guided by observing the bones left on the way. After 
500 li or so we arrive at the country of Sa-mo-kien. 
[This means " The happy country,''] ^ The king and 
people do not believe in the law of Buddha, but their 
religion consists in sacrificing to fire. There are here 
two religious foundations, but no priests dwell in them. 
If stranger-priests seek shelter therein, the barbarians 
follow them with burning fire and will not permit them 
to remain there. 

The Master of the Law on his first arrival was treated 
disdainfully by the king, but after the first night's rest, 
he discoursed for the king's sake on the destiny (catise 
and consequence) of men and Devas : he lauded the meri- 
torious qualities of Buddha: he set forth, by way of 
exhortation, the character of religious merit. The king 
was rejoiced, and requested permission to take the moral 
precepts as a disciple, and from that time showed him 

^ For the places named in this section, vide Records, <&c., i. p. 27 ss. 


the highest respect. The two young disciples went to 
the temple to worship, on which the barbarians again 
pursued them with burning fire — the two Sraman^ras 
going back told the king of it. The king hearing it 
ordered them to arrest the fire-carriers ; having done so, 
he assembled .the people and ordered the hands of the 
culprits to be cut off. The Master of the Law, wishing 
to exhort them to a virtuous life, would not consent to 
their bodies being mutilated and so saved them. The 
king having beaten them severely, expelled them from 
the city. 

From this circumstance the higher and lower sort of 
people regarded him respectfully, and as a body sought 
to be instructed in the faith. Accordingly, having 
summoned a large assembly, he received many of them 
into the priesthood and established them in the convents. 
It was thus that he transformed their badly disposed 
(heretical) hearts, and corrected their evil customs. And 
so it was wherever he went. 

Again going about 300 li to the west, he arrived 
at Kluh-shwang-ni-kia."^ Again going west 200 li or so, 
we come ^ to the kingdom, of Ho-Han [ie, " 2'he eastern- 
rest country^' Ch, Ed^ Again going west 400 li, we 
come to the country of Pu-ho.^ [This means " The middle- 
rest country*' Ch, Ud.] Again going west 100^ li or so, 
we come to the Fa-ti^ country. [This means " The western- 
rest country" Gh. Ud,] Again going west 500 li, we come 
to the Kingdom of Ho-li-sih-mi-kia {Khwdrazm), This 
country on the East borders on the Po~tsu river (th$^ 
Oxus). Again going south-west 300 li or so, we come 
to the country of Kie-shwang-na {Kesh). Again going 
south-west 200 li, we enter the mountains. The moun- 

1 Kashania. ^ The Si-yu-ki gives 400 li. 

2 The Pilgrim did not visit these ^ TheJp'a-l{^ or Fa^i country probably 
countries himself, but wrote from represents the country of the Yue-ti 
hearsay.— Vide Records , i. 34 ». ( Vati). 



tain road is deep and dangerous, scarcely wide enough 
in some places for men to pass, and, moreover, without 
herbage or water; going 300 li or so through the moun- 
tains, we enter the Iron Gates. Here the perpendicular 
precipices, like walls on either side, afford but a narrow 
passage. The stone contains much iron,. which is dug 
out. Attached to the wall on either side there is a 
folding-gate, with many cast-iron bells suspended above 
it; hence the name: this is the barrier against the 
advance of the Turks. Passing through the Iron Gates 
we arrive at the country of Tu-ho-lo [formerly ly mis- 
take written To-fo-lo, Oh, Edi\ From this, having gone 
several hundred 1% we cross the Oxus, and arrive at the 
Kingdom of Hwo {Kimdiiz), This was the residence of 
the eldest son of the Khan Yeh-hu'^ called Ta-tu-sheh 
[Sheh is an official title, Gh. Ed^ It was he who had 
married the sister of the king of Kau-chang, 

Moreover, the king of Kau-chang had sent letters to 
this place in recommendation of the Master of the Law ; 
on his arrival, the princess Ho-kia-tun^ was dead, and 
Ta-tu-sheh was sick. When he heard that the Master 
of the Law had come from Kau-chang with letters for 
himself and his wife, he was overpowered with grief 
thereat, and calling the Master, said : " Your humble 
servant at view of you has received sight I Would that 
you could remain here a little while, and rest. If I 
should recover my health, I will personally conduct you 
to the country of the Brahmans.*' 

At this time, moreover, there was a Brahman priest who 
had come to recite certain charms — which gradually had 
the effect of removing {the sickness of the prince). After- 
wards he (i.e. the Frince), married the younger sister of the 
Princess Ho-kia-tun. She, at the suggestion of her nephew 
(the son of her sister who was dead), prepared a poison and 
killed her husband. The Sheh being dead, the princess 
of Kau-chang having only a little child, the nephew who 

i Or, She-hu, 2 xhe princess Kho {Julien in loc) 


had the title T^l^ violently seized the government and 
became Sheh, after which he married his step-mother. 

As the funeral ceremony (of the late prince) was 
being- celebrated, Hiuen-Tsiang was detained for more 
than a month. 

There was then a Sramana called Ta-mo-sang-kia 
{Dharmasinha)^ residing in this country. He had 
travelled for instruction to India ; beyond the T'sung-ling 
Mountains on the western side they called him Fa-tsiang 
(i.e. Artizan of the Law, or law-maher). The priests 
of Su-leh {Kashgar) and Yu-tin {Khotan) dare not 
discuss with him. The Master of the Law {Hiuen- 
Tsiang), wishing to know his profound or shallow know- 
ledge, sent messengers to him, to ask how many Sutras 
or Sastras he was able to explain. The disciples who 
were surrounding him, when they heard the message, 
were piqued — whilst Dharmasinha answered with a 
smile: "I can explain any of them you like." The 
Master of the Law, knowing that he did not understand 
the Great Vehicle, turned his questions to the Vibhash^ 
and other Sutras belonging to the " Little Vehicle." These 
questions, not easy to solve, made him allow his in- 
feriority. The disciples were filled with shame. From 
this time whenever they met, the Sramana was full of ex- 
pressions of pleasure, and ceased not to praise the Master, 
acknowledging that he was by no means his equal. 

At this time, the new Sheh having been established in 
his government, the Master of the Law asked him for 
official envoys to conduct him, and for post-horses ( U-lo : 
UlaJc — Jul.), as he desired to go south towards the country 
of the Brahmans. The Sheh, after consideration, said : 
'' Your disciple among his possessions has the country of 
Fo-ho-lo (BaJdra), bordering northwards on the Oxus ; 
men call the capital city the little Edjagriha — so many 
are the sacred traces therein. I beg, sir, you will spend 
some time in paying reverence there {to these sacred 


spots), and afterwards take up your carriage and go 

At this time there were in this place many tens of 
priests of Baktra, who had come to express sympathy 
with the new Sheh on the death of his predecessor ; ^ when 
the Master of the Law met them, he expressed his 
intention, and to this they replied : " You ought to go 
with us at once- — the road is open now, but if you delay 
here longer the change of place will be difficult." The 
Master of the Law on these words forthwith took leave 
of the Sheh, and taking up his carriage, departed with 
those priests. Having arrived at this place (i.e. Balhh), 
observing the city and its suburbs, he noticed the 
apparently barren character of the city and its neigh- 
bourhood, but yet, in truth, it was most excellent land. 

There were about a hundred Sangharamas and three 
thousand priests, or so, all belonging to the ''Little 
VeUckr ' 

Outside the city on the south-west quarter there is the 
JSTavasafighar^ma, which is remarkable for its imposing 
structure and unusual ornaments. Inside the Safigh^- 
rama, in the hall of Buddha, there is the water- pot of 
Buddha, able to contain about two pecks. There is also 
here a tooth of Buddha, about one inch long, and eight 
or nine-tenths in breadth, of a yellow- white colour; this 
relic always irradiates a bright miraculous light. 

There is also here the sweeping brush of Buddha, made 
of Ka^a grass ; it is about three feet long, and perhaps 
seven inches round; the handle is ornamented with various 
precious substances. These three things are brought out 
every feast day, and the priests and laymen draw near 
to worship them. The most faithful, behold a spiritual 
radiancy proceeding from them. 

1 Whom the Sheh had caused to be poisoned. 

^ This seems to show that Buddhism had reached Balkh at an early date. 


To the north of the Sangharama there is a Stiipa about 
200 feet high. To the south-west of the Sangharama 
there is a Yihara, of an old date. All the priests who 
have attained to the four degrees of holiness (the fruition 
of the four paths) during successive ages, dwelling here, 
after their Mrvana, have had erected to their memory 
towers, the foundations of which, to the number of several 
hundreds, are close together in this vicinity. Fifty li to 
the north-west of the capital {the great city), we come 
to the town of Ti-wei ; forty li to the north of this town 
there is the town of Po-li. There are two Stupas in this 
town, three chang in height: in former days when 
Buddha first arrived at Supreme Enlightenment he accepted 
some honey and meal at the hands of two merchants, 
who were in that place ; when they had heard from him 
the fine moral precepts and the ten rules (sikshdpadas), 
they asked to be allowed to present their religious offer- 
ings. Tathagata gave to them, for the purpose, some 
pieces of his nails and portions of his hair, and ordered 
them to construct a tower, and furnished them with 
a model. The two merchantmen,^ taking (the relics), 
returned to their own country (or, when about to return 
to their own country), and built these two sacred (spiritual) 
towers.^ About seventy li to the west of the city there 
is a Stiipa more than two chang high ; they were built 
in the days of Kasyapa Buddha long ago. 

In the New Sanghdrdma there was (a priest) of the 
kingdom of Tcheka who had studied the three Pitakas 
belonging to the Little Vehicle ; his name was Prajnakara. 
Hearing that there were many sacred traces of religion in 
the country of Fo-ho-lo (BaJctra), he had therefore come 
to worship and reverence them. This man was of 
singular wisdom and learning, so that as a youth he was 

1 The Chinese is Chang- ch^, which this record may be, it points at any 
corresponds to the Sc. Shrishtin and rate to the belief that even in the 
i\i& Vixli Setthi. — Vide Records, i. 47, days of Buddha, merchants from 
71. 159. * Baktria had regular commerce with 

2 Whatever the historical truth of India. 


distinguished by his great sagacity. He had thoroughly 
sounded the nine collections/ and mastered the four 
Agamas. The fame of his exposition of the principles 
of the faith had spread throughout India. He was per- 
fectly acquainted with the Abhidharma of the Little 
Vehicle, the Kosha of Katyayana, the Shatpadabhi- 
dharma and other works. 

Hearing that the Master of the Law had come from 
a distance to search for religious books, he was exceed- 
ingly glad to meet him. The Master of the Law, in the 
course of his statement respecting his doubts and diffi- 
culties about the Kosha and Vibh4sh4 and other books, 
asked him for some explanations, and was answered in 
each case with extreme clearness. He remained here a 
month and studied the Vibhash^ S^stra. In this Saiig- 
harama, moreover, there were two other (priests) versed 
in the Tripitaka according to the Little Vehicle ; their 
names were Ta-mo-pi-li (Bharmapriya) and Ta-mo-ki-li 
(JDharmakara) ; they were exceedingly honoured by the 
others. Seeing the sacred features of the Master of the 
Law and the marks of intelligence which distinguished 
him, they paid him marked respect. 

There were at this time to the south-west of Baktra 
the countries named J m-mo-to (Jumadha) and Hu-shi- 
kien (JuzgAna)? Their kings, hearing that tiie Master 
of the Law had come from a distant country, both sent 
their chief ministers to salute him, and to request him to 
pass through their countries and receive religious offerings ; 
but he declined to go. The messengers having returned 
and again come back several times, in consequence of his 
continual refusals, at last he complied with the request. 
The kings, being overjoyed, offered him gold and precious 
stones, and abundance of drink and food; the Master of 
the Law declined all such gifts, and returned. 

1 That is, the nine Angas or divisions of the Sacred Books of Buddhism. 
Vide Burnouf, Introduction, p. 51, ss. 

2 For these places, vide Records, &c., vol. i., p. 48. 


Going south from Balkli in company with Prajnakara, 
the Master of the Law, they entered the kingdom of 
Kie-chi (Gaz). 

To the south-east of this kingdom they entered the 
great Snowy Mountains, and- going 600 U and more they 
left the boundaries of the Tu-ho-lo {Tuhhdra) country, 
and entered the kingdom of Fan-yen-na (Bdmiydn). 
This country from east to west is about 2000 li in 
extent. It is situated in the middle of the Snowy 
Mountains ; the muddy roads and dangers of the passes 
and tracks are double those of the frozen desert. The 
pelting hail and snowstorms go on perpetually inter- 
mingled ; then, the winding and crooked passes that are 
met with ; then, in the level parts, the mud stretching 
for several changs ; so that what Sung-yu says about the 
dangers of the western region, (viz., of Sz'chuen and the 
Wu'Shan)} "the storeyed ice-like mountains, and the 
flying snow for a thousand li,'* is applicable to this 
district also. 

Alas ! if it were not that I had determined to seek 
the incomparable Law for the sake of all that lives, 
much rather would I have pleaded that this body of 
mine, left by my parents, should have gone on its (last) 
journey {i.e, that I should have died). And so Wang- 
tsun,^ when he had accomplished the embankments of 
Kiu-che, himself said : " I am but a loyal servant of 
Han." The Master of the Law having surmounted the 
precipices of the Snowy Mountains in search for the 
sacred Law, is also able to be named "a true son of 

It was thus he gradually arrived at B^miyan, the 
chief town of which possesses something like ten reli- 
gious foundations, with several thousand priests ; these 
belong to the Little Vehicle, according to the L6k6ttara 
Vadinah school. 

^ Vide Mayers, Manual, &c. , sub, 873. 

2 Probably the character Tsun is for To. Mayers, 822, 


The king of Bamiyan went forth to escort him, and 
invited him within his palace to receive his religious 
offerings : after a day or two he went forth to make his 

There were there two priests belonging to the Mahasaiig- 
hika school, whose names were Aryadasa and Aryasena, 
both of them deeply versed in the Law. When they 
met the Master of the Law they were full of admiration, 
that so remote a country as China should possess such a 
distinguished priest. They conducted him from place to 
place to pay his reverence, or to inspect, and did not 
cease in their attention and services to him. 

North-east of the capital, on the declivity of a hill, 
there is a standing stone figure^ about 150 feet high. 
To the east of the figure there is a Sangharama, to the 
east of which is a standing figure of Sakya, made of 
calamine stone,^ in height one hundred feet. Within the 
Sangharama there is a figure of Buddha represented as 
when he was asleep on entering Nirvana, about 1000 
feet in length. All these figures are of an imposing 
character and extremely good (execution). 

Going south-east from this, 200 li or so, crossing 
the great Snowy Mountains, we come to a small valley ^ 
where there is a Sangharama, in which there is a tooth 
of Buddha, and also a tooth of a Pratyeka Buddha, who 
lived at the beginning of the present Kalpa. This tooth 
is ^Ye inches long, and four inches broad, or a little 
less. Moreover, there is the tooth of a Chakravarttin 
monarch (king of the golden wheel), three inches long, and 
two "inches broad. Moreover, there is the iron pot (pdtra), 
which Shang-no-kia-fo-sha (^dnaJcavdsa) carried, able to 
hold eight or nine pints, and also his Sanghati robe, of a 
bright red colour. This man, during five hundred births 

1 But the text does not say " of 3 The Chinese is ch*uen (a stream), 
Buddha," as Julien translates Fie, which has here, and also in Fa-hien, 
p. 69. cap. xvi. ad finem^ the sense of a 

2 Or, covei'ed with brass plates. valley or gorge. 

54 TtiE LiFE OF HIUEM-TSIANG. [book il. 

in the world, had always been born with this robe on him, 
but afterwards (when he was ordained) changed it (or, it 
changed) into a Kashaya garment; the story is a long. one, 
as may be read in the other narrative ^ (i.e. the Si-yu-hi), 

Thus passed fifteen days, and then, leaving Bamiy^n, 
on the second day he encountered a snowstorm, which 
caused him to miss his road. Coming to a small sand 
hillock, he met some hunters, who showed him the way. 
Crossing the Black Eidge,^ he arrived at the borders of 

This kingdom is about 4000 li in circuit. On the 
north it is bounded (bached) by the Snowy Mountains. 
The king is selected from the Kshattriya caste. He 
is a clever, shrewd man, and has brought under his 
control some ten kingdoms. 

When {Hiuen-Tsiang) was about to arrive at the 
capital, the king and all the priests went forth from 
the city to escort him. 

There are some hundred or so religious foundations, 
the residents in which had sharp words together, each 
convent wishing to induce the Master to stop there. 

There was a temple belonging to the Little Vehicle, 
which was named Sha-lo-hia.^ The story goes that the 
temple was built some time ago, when the son of the 
Han Emperor was held as an hostage. The priests of 
this temple said: ''Our temple was originally founded 
by a son of the Han Emperor, and now, as you come 
from that country, you ought first to stop with us." 

The Master of the Law seeing them thus, was deeply 
impressed ; and as his companion, Hwui-Sing {ix, Praj- 
ndhara, see p. 50), Master of the Law, belonged to this 
school of the Little Vehicle, to which these priests were 
attached, he did not desire to live in a temple belonging 
to the Great Vehicle ; accordingly they went to stop at 
the temple made for the hostage. 

1 Vide Records, vol. i., p. 53. ^ For some remarks on this name, 

2 (Si^h Koh), or Koh Baba. vide Eecords, i. p. 57, n. 203. 

Bookil] the concealed TREASURE, 55 

Moreover, at this time there was treasured here (by the 
hostage), under the foot of the image of the Great- Spirit 
King,-^ on the south side of the eastern gate of the Hall 
of Buddha, a countless quantity of jewels and gems, 
as a means for the after repairs of the building. The 
priests, in gratitude for such favours, had in various 
places painted on the walls the figure of the hostage 
prince. At the time of the conclusion of the Eest, 
(i.e. the Eest during the Bains), this congregation holds 
an assembly for preaching and reciting the Scriptures, 
as a means for planting (or, ^perpetuating his) religious 
merit ; ^ this custom has been handed down from genera- 
tion to generation, and is still observed. 

Eecently there was a wicked king who, fired by a 
covetous disposition, desired to carry off the priests* 
treasure. Accordingly he sent men to dig underneath 
the foot of the Spirit-King. Then the earth greatly 
quaked, and the figure of the parrot which was on the 
top of his head, seeing them digging, flapped his wings, 
and screamed violently. The king and his troops were 
all seized with terror and fell to the earth; after this, 
they returned home. 

There is in the temple a Stiipa. The tee (encircling 
rings) of this building having tumbled down, the priests 
wished to take the treasure and to repair it. On making 
the attempt, the earth again trembled and roared, so that 
no one dared to go near. 

When the Master of the Law arrived, the whole 
assembly came together, and, as a body, requested the 
Master of the Law (to assist them), setting forth and 
relating the previous circumstances. 

The Master of the Law and the others then proceeded 
to the place of the Spirit (that is, the place of the statue 

1 T\i?ith, VaiSrav ana : vide Records, lates to "religious merit." It would 
b. i., n. 207. ^ seem, however, that the religious 

2 Julien's translation is too diffuse, service was designed to perpetuate the 
There is no mention of " the hostage " memory of the hostage. 

in the text, and the symbol fuh re- 


of the Spirit-King), and burning incense, he said : " Tiie 
royal hostage formerly concealed here these precious 
things, purposing them for the meritorious object of 
building (i.e. repairing the building ) ; now then the time 
has arrived for opening the treasure (charity/) and using 
it. We pray you to penetrate the truth of our purpose, 
and for a while restrain the power (virtue) of your 
august presence, and permit this proceeding. 

*' I, Hiuen-Tsiang, will personally superintend (the 
worh of excavation), and will measure accurately the 
weight, and dispense to the master of the Work, justly, 
what is necessary for the execution of the repairs, and 
will permit no useless waste. Only we beseech the 
spiritual power of the god to condescend to search 
out the truth (of our intentions^ 

Having said these words, he ordered the men to dig into 
the ground ; they did so calmlj^ and without molestation. 
At the depth of seven or eight feet, they came to a great 
copper vessel, which contained several hundred catties of 
gold, and several scores of pearls. The great congregation 
were filled with joy, and without exception paid their 
services to the Master of the Law. The Master of the 
Law kept the Eain-Eest in this temple. 

The king of this country thinks little of the polite 
arts, he entirely trusts to (the teaching of) the Great 
Vehicle. As he was fond of the sight of religious con- 
ferences and discussions, he asked the Master of the 
Law and Prajnakara (Doctor) of the three Pitakas, to 
a religions assembly to be held in a Temple of the 
Great Vehicle. In that Temple there was (a Doctor) 
of the three Pitakas called Manojnaghosha (Mo-nu- 
jo-hm-sha), and also a Sa-po-to, A-li-ye-fa-mo (ix, Arya- 
varma of the Sarvdstivddin school), and also a priest of 
the Mi-sha-seh school (MahisdsaJca), named Ku-na-po-to 
(Gunahhadra) ] these priests were reputed the chief in 
that convent. Their acquirements, however, were not 
universal, but confined to one or other points in the 


Great or Little (Vehicle), as the case might be, and 
although clear on that point, yet narrowed in its extent 
(length). But the Master of the Law had thoroughly 
examined the teaching of all the schools, and answered 
the questions put to him by all comers, according to the 
several systems of doctrine : so that all present were 
constrained to acknowledge his superiority. 

Thus for five days (the discussion continued), then the 
assembly dispersed. 

The king, being overjoyed, gave to the Master of the 
Law, as a distinct present, five pieces of embroidered silk ; 
and to the others, different offerings. 

The Eain-Eetreat being ended in the Sha-lo-kia con- 
vent, Prajnakara returned (to Balhh), in obedience to the 
request of the king of Tukh&ra. The Master of the 
Law having separated from him proceeded eastward, and 
having advanced some 600 1% passing the Black Eidge, 
he entered the borders of India, and came to the country 
of Lan-po (Lamghdn), 

This country is about looo li in circuit. There are 
ten Sangharamas, the priests are all devoted to the Great 
Vehicle. Having stopped three days, he proceeded 
southward, and came to a little hill on which was a 
Stupa. This is where Buddha stopped in former days 
when he came here from the south, in consequence of 
which, men, in after days, built this Stupa from a feeling 
of affectionate respect. All places to the north of this 
are called Mi-li-ku (i.e. frontier lands) [MleSoha lands]. 
Tathagata, when he desired to instruct and convert (these 
people), in so doing, used to pass through the air in 
coming and going, and would not tread on the earth, as 
the earth trembled and shook under his footsteps. 

From this, going south twenty li or so, and descending 
the mountain ridge,^ after crossing a river, he came to the 
country of Na-kie-lo-ho (Nagarahdra). Two li to the 

1 But there is nothing said about ^Hhc black " ridge, as Julien translates. 

58 THE LIFE OE HlUBN-TStANG, [book it 

south-east of the capital of the country is a Stupa 300 
feet or so in height ; it was built by As oka raja. It was 
here Sakya Bodhisattva, in the second Asankhya of years 
(from the present time), met Jen-tang-Fo (DipanJcara 
Buddha). He spread his deer-skin robe and unloosed his 
hair, to preserve (the Buddha) from the mud, and in 
consequence received a predictive assurance (that he wov2d 
become a Buddha). Although there have passed Kalpa 
destructions (since that period), the traces of this event 
remain intact. The Devas here scatter all sorts of 
flowers and continually pay their religious services. 

The Master of the Law when he arrived at this spot, paid 
his devotions and religiously circumambulated the building. 

There was then, by the side of the Stupa, an old priest who 
explained for the Master's sake the origin of the building. 

The Master's question was this : " The period of the 
Bodhisattva's service in spreading his hair was in the 
second Asankhya of years, but since this period to the 
present time an innumerable number of Kalpas have 
elapsed. In the course of these Kalpas the universe has 
been repeatedly perfected and destroyed. As when the 
destruction by fire has taken place, even Mount Sumeru 
has been reduced to ashes, how is it that this religious 
monument (or, these sacred traces), cannot be destroyed ? " 

In reply, he said : "At the time of the dissolution of 
the universe this monument also is destroyed ; but at the 
period of restoration, this old vestige is also restored to 
its original condition. So, just as Mount Sumeru is 
restored, after its destruction, to its former condition, 
why should this sacred relic alone not reappear ? This 
comparison can admit of no question." Such was the 
celebrated reply. 

About ten li to the south-west is a Stupa ; this is the 
place where Buddha (i.e. when he was Dipankara) bought 
the flowers."^ 

1 Por the story of Dipankara purchasing the flowers, vide Records, i. 92, 93. 

feooK il] re Lies At BiDDA, 59 

Again, to the south-east, after crossing a sandy peak, 
we come to the town of Buddha's skull bone."'' In 
this town is a double-storeyed tower and in the upper 
storey is a small Stupa, made of the seven precious sub- 
stances, which contains the bone of the top of the head 
of Tathagata. This bone is one foot and two inches 
round. The marks of the hair orifices are quite distinct. 
The colour of the bone is a yellowish white ; it is en- 
closed in a jewelled box. If any one wishes to know 
the indications of his guilt or his religious merit, he 
mixes some powdered incense into a paste, which he 
spreads upon a piece of silken stuff, and then presses it 
on the top of the bone : according to the resulting in- 
dications the good fortune or ill fortune of the man, is 

The Master of the Law, in taking an impression, 
obtained the figure of the B6dhi tree: of the two 
Sramaneras who also took impressions, the first obtained 
a figure of Buddha, the other a figure of a lotus. The 
Brahman who guarded the bone was overjoyed as he 
turned to the Master, with his fingers interlaced (rounded 
like a hall), and then scattering flowers before him, said : 
"That indication which the Master has obtained is 
extremely rare, and is a sure sign of your having a 
portion of true wisdom {Bodhi)!' 

There is also here a tower of the skull bone shaped 
like a lotus leaf. 

Also the eyeball of Buddha, as large as an Amra fruit, 
and so bright that its rays dart forth from the box to 
some distance outside. 

Again, there is the Sangh^ti robe of Buddha, made of 
a very fine silky cotton stuff. 

Again, there is the staff of Buddha, the rings whereof 
are made of tin, and the haft of sandalwood. All these 
the Master of the Law adored with reverence ; after 
which, in consequence of this opportunity of paying his 

1 Hidda. 


heartfelt respect, he presented (at the different shrines)^ 
fifty gold pieces, one thousand silver pieces, four silken 
banners, two pieces of brocaded (satin), and two sets of 
religious vestments : then having scattered flowers, and 
again prostrated himself in worship, he went forth. 

And now he heard that to the south-west of the city 
of Dipankara, about twenty li or so, there was the cave 
where dwelt the IsT^gaiaja Gopala. Tathagata in former 
days having tamed this E"aga, left to him as a bequest 
his shadow to remain in the cavern. The Master of the 
Law wished to go there to worship ; but he was told that 
the roads were deserted and dangerous, and moreover 
that they were frequented by robbers, and that for the 
last two or three years those who had gone for the 
purpose of seeing {the shadow) had not succeeded in 
their purpose, and so there were few now who w^ent. 

And now, when the Master wished to go to pay his 
adoration to this relic, the envoys sent with him by the 
king of Kapisa, earnestly longing to return, besought him 
not to delay any longer nor think of going to the cave. 

The Master of the Law replied : " The shadow of the 
true body of Tathagata, during a hundred thousand kalpas 
can with difficulty be met with : how much rather, then, 
having come so far as this, should I not go to worship 
it ? As for you, advance on your journey slowly, and 
I will rejoin you after a little while.'' 

On this he went alone, and arriving at the town of 
Dipankara, he entered a monastery, and inquired some 
particulars as to the road, but found no one who would 
go with him as a guide. After a while he met with a 
little boy who said : " The farm-house of the convent is 
not far from the place, I will guide you so far." The 
Master then went with the boy and arrived at the farm- 
house, where he passed the night. He then found an 
old man who knew the place, and so with him as a 
guide they set out together. After going a few li they 
were met by five robbers who came upon them sword in 


hand. The Master of the Law immediately removed his 
loose cloakj so as to let his religious vestments appear. 
The robbers said : " Where is the Master going ? " In 
reply he said : " I am wishful to worship the shadow of 
Buddha." The robbers said : " Have you not heard that 
this road is infested with brigands ? " He answered : 
" Bobbers are human beings. I am now going to adore 
Buddha ; though the road be filled with savage beasts, I 
have no fear ; how much less should I fear you, who are 
my human benefactors (or, protectors) ? " 

Tlie robbers were touched to the heart by these words 
and allowed him to go to perform his act of worship, and 
so they arrived at the cave. 

The cave lies to the eastward of a stony water-course ; 
the door through the wall {of the cave) faces the west. 
Looking into the cave all is wrapped in gloom and no 
object visible. The old man spoke to the Master thus : 
"You must enter and pass straight on to the eastern 
wall ; when you touch that, stop, and then go backwards 
fifty paces and no more ; then face the eastern wall and 
look ; the shadow is in that place." The Master of the 
Law entered {the cave) and paced forward, it may be 
fifty strides/ and touched the eastern wall, and then 
according to the directions he went backwards and stood 
still. Then animated by the most sincere desire, he 
paid his worship with a hundred and more prostrations : 
but he saw nothing. He reproached himself for his 
shortcomings, and with lamentable cries, he expressed 
his deep sorrow. Then again with his utmost heart he 
paid his worship and recited the Shing-kwan and other 
sutras, he also repeated the g4thas of the Buddhas, making 
one prostration after each verse of praise. After about 
one hundred prostrations, he saw on the eastern wall a 
great light about the size of a Patra ^ {in circuit) ; which 
disappeared in a moment. Sorrowful and yet rejoicing he 

1 According to this, if he came back fifty paces, he must have stood at the 
entrance of the cave. '^ Alms-dish, or bowl. 


again paid his adorations, and then there appeared a great 
light round as a basin, which again as quickly dis- 
appeared. Then, filled with additional ardour and desire, 
he vowed within himself that if he did not see the 
shadow of the Lord of the world, that he would never 
leave the place. Then he performed two hundred more 
acts of worship, and then, whilst the whole cave was 
brightened up with light, the shadow of Tatb^gata of a 
shining white colour appeared on the wall, as when 
the opening clouds suddenly reveal the golden Mount 
and its excellent indications. Bright were the divine 
lineaments of his face, and as the Master gazed in awe 
and holy reverence, he knew not how to compare the 
spectacle ; the body of Buddha and his kash^ya robe were 
of a yellowish red colour, and from his knees upward 
the distinguishing marks of his person were exceedingly 
glorious I but below, the lotus throne on which he sat 
w^as slightly obscured. On the left and right of the 
shadow and somewhat behind, were visible the shadows of 
BSdhisattvas and the holy priests surrounding them. 

Having gazed on the vision, he summoned six men, 
from some distance outside the gate, to get some fire, 
aiqid bring it in for burning incense. But as soon as the 
fire was brought in, the shadow of Buddha disappeared. 
Then he quickly ordered them to put the fire out, and, 
on his earnest request, the shadow again appeared. 

Among the six men, five of the number were able to 
see the shadow, but one of them could see nothing. 

Thus the appearance lasted for the short space of half 
a mealtime, during which having uttered his praises in 
worship and scattered flowers and incense, the light then 
suddenly disappeared.-^ 

Having left the cave, the Brahman, who had been his 
guide, was filled with joy as he extolled the miracle; 
moreover he said : ''' If it had not been for the sincere 

1 The entire story of the " Shadow " such contrivances already been intro- 
seems to indicate the use of a Ian- duced into India from Persia ? 
tern and slide as a pious fraud. Had 


faith and prayers of the Master, this could not have 
happened." Outside the door of the cave there are 
many sacred traces [as detailed in the other narrative]. 

As they were returning together those five hrigands, 
laying aside their arms, received the moral precepts and 

After this the Master rejoined his companions, and pass- 
ing over the mountains in a south-easterly direction, after 
500 li or so, they came to the country of Gandh^ra. 

This kingdom on the eastern side borders on the Sin-tu 
river; the capital is called Po-lu-sha-jpo-lo} In this 
country many sages and saints from old days composed 
Sastras, as for instance Ka-lo-yen-ti'en {Ndraydna Leva), 
Wu-cho-Pu-sa (Asangha Bodhisattva), Shi-tsin-pu-sa 
(Vasuhandhu Bodhisattva), Fa-k'iu (Dharmatrdta), Ju-i 
(Manorhita), Hi-tsun-che (the venerable Parsvika), and 
others, all of whom came from this kingdom. 

To the north-east of the capital there is erected a 
precious tower of the Patra of Buddha. 

This patra afterwards removed itself through various 
countries, and at present is found in the country of Po- 
lai-na-se {Bandras). 

Eight or nine li to the south-east beyond the capital 
is a Pi-po-lo tree, about 100 feet high. The four past 
Buddhas have all sat underneath this tree, and now 
there are the figures of these four Tathagatas placed 
here. The 996 Buddhas yet to come will also sit here. 

By the side of this tree there is a Stupa ; this was 
built by Kanishka-raja ; it is 400 feet high, the founda- 
tion part is a li and a half in circuit, and 150 feet high. 
Above the Stupa is raised a series of imperishable 
(diamond) wheels (or, metal rings), twenty-five in number. 
In the Stupa there are ^ariras (relics) of Buddha to the 
amount of ten pecks (one hoh). 

^ Purushapura (Peshawar). 


A hundred paces or so to the south-west of the great 
Stupa there is a figure, carved out of white stone, eighteen 
feet high ; it stands with its face to the north. Very 
many spiritual portents (ar^ exhibited here). Frequently 
there are persons who see the statue at night going 
round the great Stupa. 

A hundred li or so to the north-east of the Sang- 
harama of Kanishka, we cross a great river and come to 
the town of Po-sih-kie-lo-fa-ti (Pushkaldvati). To the 
east of the town there is a Stupa built by Asoka-r^ja. 
Here the four past Buddhas have preached the Law. 

Four or five li to the north of the town is a Sang- 
harama, within which is a Stupa, about 200 feet high, 
erected by Asoka raja ; it was here that Sakya Buddha 
when formerly living (acting) as a Bodhisattva, deb'ghted 
in performing deeds of charity. For a thousand births he 
was born as king of this country, and here, during these 
births, he plucked out his eyes (and gave them in charity). 
Of all these acts there are innumerable holy traces. 

The Master of the Law visited these sacred spots in 
succession, and offered worship. 

When he came to a great Tower, or to a great 
Sanghar^ma, he always gave away a portion of the gold 
and silver and silks and religious vestments which he had 
received as a charitable donation from the king of Kau- 
Chang. Having delayed long enough to show the since- 
rity of his faith in making these offerings, he departed. 

From this place he arrived at the town of U-to-hia- 
han-cha (Utahhanda), 

Travelling northwards from this town and passing 
over mountains and valleys, after going 600 li or so, he 
entered the country of U-chang-na (Udydna). 

On either side of the river Su-po-sa-tu (Subhavastu) 
there were formerly 1400 Sanghdramas, with some 
18,000 priests; but now all is desert and depopulated.^ 

^ In Sung-yun's time (a.D. 520) the country was in a high state of prosperity. 
It was probably devastated by Mibirakula. 


The priests who observe the Eules and follow the tra- 
ditions of religion, belong to five schools, viz., the 
Dharmaguptas, the Mahi^asakas, the Ka^yapiyas, the 
Sarvastivadas, and the Mahasanghikas. . 

The king mostly lives in the town of Mung-hie'li 
Qlungali)^ which is well populated and prosperous. To 
the east of the town four or five li, is a great stui^a 
celebrated for its miraculous capabilities. This is the 
place where formerly Buddha (was horn) as Kshdnti 
Eishi, and for the sake of Kaliraja allowed his body 
to be cut in pieces.^ 

To the north-east of the town 250 1% entering on a 
great mountain region, we come to the fountain of the 
Ni\ga A-po-lo-lo (Apaldla), which in fact is the upper 
source of the river Suvastu. It flows to the south-west. 

This land is very cold. Even during spring and 
summer there are frequent frosts, morning and evening, 
and flying snow-storms, with pelting rain and snow 
fancifully commingled, reflecting the five colours like 
confused flowers. 

Thirty li or so south-west of the Naga fountain on 
the north side of the river on the top of a large flat 
stone, there is a trace of Buddha's foot. This trace 
appears long or short, according to the merit or prayers 
of the men who inspect it. 

In former days when Buddha subdued the n&ga 
Apalala, he came to this spot and left this trace as a 
fortunate indication. 

Following down the stream thirty li or so, we come 
to the washing-garment stone of Tathagata (i.e. the stone 
on which he washed his rohe). The marks of the flowery 
tracery of the Kashaya garment are plainly seen. 

To the south of the town 400 li or so, we come to 
Mount Hi-lo. Here Tathagata in former days, hearing a 
half-g4tba, in gratitude to the Yaksha, threw his body 

1 Probably the same as Mankalai, Lat. 34° 50' N., Long. 71° 50' K, marked 
on the Indian Survey Map No. 4. 

2 Julie n's translation is here in error, vie, p. 86. 



down (from a tree) for his use.-^ [A gdtha consists of 
forty-two words, Gh, Ed. The Si-yu-ki says thirty-two.] 

Fifty li to the west of the town of Mungali, after 
crossing a great river,^ we came to a stupa called Lu-hi- 
ta-ka {Rohitalca, i.e., red) ; it is about ten cliang high 
(lOO feet), and was built by Asoka-raja. Here Tatha- 
gata in former days being born as Maitribala raja, cut 
his body with a knife in charity to five Yakshas. 

To the north-east of the city thirty li or so, we come 
to a stone stnpa called '' The Miraculous '' {Adhhuta), 
It is about thirty feet high. It was here that Buddha 
in olden days preached the law on behalf of Devas and 
men. After leaving the spot, this stupa rose out of the 
earth of its own accord. 

To the west of the stupa, after crossing a great river 
and going three or four li^ we come to a Yihara, in 
which is a figure of Avalokite^vara Bodhisattva, which is 
possessed of exceedingly august spiritual qualities. 

To the north-east of the city, it is said that there are 
men, who, passing across mountains and valleys, following 
up {the river) in a contrary direction, along many moun- 
tain roads full of mud and dangerous defiles— sometimes 
passing across by iron chains and sometimes over flying 
bridges — going thus a thousand li or so, — come to the 
valley of Ta-li-lo (jDdril) identical with the site of the 
old capital of U-chang-na (JJdydna)? 

In this valley (cKicen) is a large Sangharama, by the 
side of which is a carved wooden statue of Maitreya Bodhi- 
sattva, of a golden colour and very majestic in appearance. 
It is about lOO feet in height, and was made by the Arhat 
Madhy^ntika. By his power of divine locomotion he 
enabled an artist to ascend to the Tusita heaven, and 
caused him to observe personally tlie characteristic marks 

1 Records. Vol. i. p. 124. of the phrase ^Hhere are men, <f?c." 

2 Viz. the Kumar River. is probably an error. The symbol for 
8 In this passage the introduction "a thousand," is also imperfect,] BODHISATTVA BORN AS CHANDRAPRABHA. 67 

(of Maitreya's hody). After going there three times, the 
meritorious work was finished. 

Going south from the town of U-to-kia-han cha, we 
cross the Sin-tu river, which is here three or four li in 
width. Its stream is extremely clear and rapid. 
Poisonous dragons and evil sprites dwell beneath this 
river in great numbers. Those who cross this river 
carrying with them rare gems of India, or celebrated 
flowers, or Sdrlras, the boat (in which they embark) is 
suddenly overwhelmed by the waves. 

Crossing the river we come to the country of Ta-cKa- 
shi-lo (Taksha^ila). To the north of this town, about 
twelve or thirteen 1% there is a stupa which was built 
by King A^6ka. It constantly emits a sacred light from 
its surface. 

In olden times when Tath&gata was practising the 
duties of a Bodhisattva, he cut off his head in this 
place. He was then king of a great country, and his 
name was Chandraprabha. By so doing he aimed to 
acquire the supreme wisdom of B6dhi, and this he did 
through a thousand births. 

By the side of the stupa is a Sangh^rama; in old 
days Ku-mo-lo-to (Kumaralabdha) a master of the 
Sautrantika school, composed in this place various ^4stras. 

From this, going about 700 li in a south-easterly 
direction, we pass through the kingdom of Sang-ho-po- 
lo (Simhapura). 

After leaving the northern borders of Takshasila, 
and crossing the Sindhu river about 200 li to the south- 
east, we go through a great rocky pass {gate). This is 
the spot where in olden time the Mah4sattva as a Prince 
Eoyal, gave up his body to feed the seven cubs of the 
starving Wu-fu (tiger cat^ cf. Otu)} 

The land here was originally dyed with the blood of 

1 Vide Mecords, i, 146. 


the Eoyal Prince, and now it remains of the same colour ; 
and the shrubs and trees partake of this hue. 

Again going from this in a south-easterly direction 
500 li or so across the mountains, we come to the 
country of Wu-la-shi (Ura^a). Still going to the south- 
east, climbing precipitous passes and crossing iron bridges 
for 1000 li or so, we arrive at the country of Ka^mir. 

The capital of this country on the west borders on 
the Great Eiver. There are 1 00 religious foundations in 
it, and about 5000 priests. Moreover, there are four 
stiipas of wonderful height and great magnificence : these 
were built by A^oka-raja. Each of them has about one 
measure of the sariras of Tath4gata. 

When the Master of the Law first arrived at the 
borders (of this kingdom), he entered it by the stone 
gates, the western entrance of the kingdom. The king 
sent his mother and younger brother with chariots and 
horses to escort him. Having entered the stone gates, he 
visited successively the Sangh^rftmas and offered his 
adorations ; then coming to a temple he passed the night 
there. The name of the temple was U-sse-kia-lo 

That night the priests saw a vision in their sleep; a 
divine being said to them : " This stranger-priest is come 
from Maha-China ; he wishes to study the sacred books, 
and to adore the sacred traces in India." 

The Masters said in humble reply : " We have not yet 
heard of this man." 

" This man who has come {from afar) to seek after 
the Law," he added, " is surrounded by numberless good 
spirits, who follow him everywhere. Such a man is now 
in your midst — resting for the night. The merit which 
attaches to attention paid to distant visitors is very great. 
You ought now therefore to be diligently reciting the Scrip- 
tures, and exciting in him a spirit of praise. Why, then, 
are ye idle in these duties and plunged in sleep ? " 

* So restored by Julien, in loc. 

bookil] arrives at THE CAPITAL OP KASMIR, 69 

The priests hearing these words awoke, and moving 
about, or sitting in meditation, recited the Scriptures, till 
morning — and then coming together they related the 
incident of the vision one to another, and applied them- 
selves more earnestly to their devotions. 

Thus they continued for several days, after which the 
Master gradually approached the capital; when distant 
from about it one li he reached the preaching-hall (JDhar- 
niasdla). Then the king, with his assembled ministers and 
all the priests belonging to the capital, advanced to the 
preaching-hall, and escorted him onwards, being altogether 
something like a thousand men, with standards and para- 
sols, with incense and flowers filling the roads. When they 
met {the Master) they all performed a humble salutation and 
spread before him countless flowers as religious offerings. 
This done, he was invited to mount a large elephant — 
and thus escorted, he approached the capital. 

They stopped at the Ohe-T/e-in-io-lo convent {Jayendra). 

On the morrow the king besought him to enter his 
palace and receive his religious offerings ; he also ordered 
several tens of the most distinguished priests {to attend 
on this occasion). The repast ended, the king invited 
them to open the conference, and requested the Master to 
discuss difficult {"parts of the doctrine). 

Observing his readiness {joy)^ and finding that having 
come from far, fired by a desire to learn, he had no. 
original texts from whence to read — {the Jcin^) gave 
him twenty men to copy the Sacred Books and Ssistras ; 
moreover, he ordered five men to wait on him and obey 
his orders, and to furnish him, free of expense, with 
whatever things he required. 

The chief of the priests of that establishment was a 
man of high moral character. He observed with the 
greatest strictness the religious rules and ordinances. He 
was possessed of the highest intelligence, and acquainted 
with all the points of a true disciple. His talents were 
eminent ; his spiritual powers exalted ; and his disposition 

76 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TStANG, [book li. 

affectionate. Thus he was pleased to invite the illustrious 
stranger and to honour him as a guest. The Master of 
the Law likewise with all his heart respectfully questioned 
him, and night and day begged him ceaselessly to explain 
and give into his keeping the various Sastras. 

That eminent man was about seventy years of age — 
his natural forces were somewhat abated — but having 
had the fortune to meet with a vessel of divine power 
{i,e, Hiuen-Tsiavg) he used his utmost efforts to rouse 
himself (to the task of explication). Before noon he 
explained the Kosha ^^stra. After noon he explained 
the Niydya-aniisdrd ^astra — after the first watch of the 
night he explained the Hituvidyd ^^stra. On these 
occasions all the learned men within the borders {of the 
kingdom), without exception, flocked together {to hear 
the discourse). The Master of the Law, following the 
words of his teacher, grasped thoroughly the entire 
subject — he penetrated all the obscure passages and 
their sacred mysteries, completely. 

So that eminent man was immeasurably overjoyed 
and spake to the body of priests in these words, " This 
priest of China possesses wonderful {vast and immeasur- 
ahle) strength of wisdom. In all this congregation 
there is none to surpass him. By his wisdom and his 
virtue he is competent to join in succession to the fame 
of the brother of Yasubandhu {i.e, Asangha Bodhisattva). 
What a subject for regret, indeed ! that belonging to a 
distant land he cannot at once form a part in the 
bequeathed fragrance of the saints and sages 1 " 

Then there was in the congregation certain priests 
versed in the doctrine of the Great Vehicle— viz., Pi-shu- 
to-sang-ho (Visuddhasimha), Ghin-na-fan-tib (Jinabandhu); 
and of the Sarv^stavadin school, the following : Sii-kia- 
mi'tO'lo (Sugatamitra), Po-sib-mi-to-lo (Yasumitra) ; and 
of the school of the Mahasanghikas, the following : Sii-li- 
ye-ti-po (Suryadeva), Chin-na-ta-lo-to (Jinatrata). 


This country from remote times was distinguished for 
learning, and these priests were all of high religious 
merit and conspicuous virtue, as well as of marked 
talent, and power of clear exposition of doctrine; and 
though the other priests (i.e. of other nations) were in 
their own way distinguished, yet they could not be 
compared with these — so different were they from the 
ordinary class. 

When they first encountered the Master of the Law, 
because he was filled with enthusiasm for the great 
Masters, they did not cease to propose difficult questions, 
to catch him. The Master of the Law, with clear sight 
and unembarrassed language, answered them with no 

From this time forth the sages were abashed in his 

This country was formerly a N^ga's lake. Fifty 
years after the Nirvana of Buddha, Madhy^ntika, a 
disciple of Ananda, converted the dragon-king. Quit- 
ting his lake he founded 500 Sangh^r^mas, and invited 
sages and saints to come and dwell there, and receive 
the religious off'erings of the N^gas. 

After this, Kanishka, king of Gandh&ra, in the four 
hundredth year from the Nirvana of Tath^gata, at the 
request of Parsvika, convoked an assembly of saintly 
men, who were conversant with the esoteric doctrine of 
the three Pitakas, and had investigated the exoteric 
doctrine of the five vidy^s.-^ 

Thus 499 men came together, and these, with the 
venerable Vasumitra, composed 500. The saints and 
sages then assembled, and recited connectedly the three 

First they composed, in ten myriad stanzas, the 
Upadesha-sdstraj to explain the Sntra pitaka. 

1 The text is here defective. 


Next in ten myriad stanzas they composed the Vinaya^ 
vihdshd-sdstra, to explain the Vinaya. 

Next they composed, in ten myriad verses, the Ahhi' 
dhama- Vibdshd-sdstra, 

Altogether they composed thirty myriad of verses 
consisting of ninety-six myriad words. 

The king ordered these Sastras to be engraved on 
sheets of copper, which he enclosed in a stone chest, 
sealed and inscribed. Then he built a great stnpa and 
placed the chest within it, commanding the Yaksha spirits 
to protect and defend it. 

The increased light thrown on the very mysterious doc- 
trines of religion, is the result {force) of this (condtcct). 

Thus having halted here, first and last, for two years, 
and having studied the Sutras and Sastras, and paid 
reverence to the sacred traces, the Master took his leave. 

Proceeding in a south-westerly direction, he crossed 
mountains and streams, and going 700 1% he came to the 
kingdom of Pan-nu-tso (Funach), 

Thence going east 400 U or so, he came to Ho-lo-she- 
pu-lo (Bdjapuri), 

From this, going south-east down the mountains and 
crossing the river, after y 00^ li or so, he came to the 
kingdom of Tseh-kia {Takka), 

From Lan-po {LamghaTi) till arriving in this territory, 
the common people (being residents in a frontier country 
of a wild character), differ to some degree in their man- 
ners, clothing, and language, from India, having the 
customs of outlying and scattered districts. 

Going from the country of E^japuri, after two days 
they crossed the Chandrabh^ga ^ river, and came to the 
town of Che-ye-pu-lo {Jayapura), where they lodged for 
the night in a temple belonging to the heretics. This 

1 Julien has, by mistake, 200 li. 2 xhe Oheii^b. 


temple was outside the western gate of the town, and 
at this time contained about twenty disciples.^ The day 
after the morrow, they reached the town of Che kia-lo 
(SdJcala). In this town is a Sanghararaa with about 
a. hundred priests. In the old days Vasubandhu Bodhi- 
sattva here composed the treatise Shing-i-tai-lun? By 
the side of the convent is a stupa, about 200 feet high. 
This is the spot where in former times the four Buddhas 
preached the ^ law. They bequeathed traces of their foot- 
steps as they walked to and fro which are still visible. 

Leaving this place he arrived at a great forest of 
Po'lo-che trees (Pala^as), just to the eastward of the 
town of Na-lo-sang-ho {Ndi^asimha). In the forest he 
encountered a band of fifty robbers. These men, having 
taken the clothes and goods of the Master of the Law 
and his companions, without leaving anything, then pur- 
sued them, sword in hand, till they reached a dried-up 
marsh, ready to slay them all. This marsh was covered 
with a tangled mass of prickly, matted creepers. The 
Master of the Law and the Sr§.maneras who accompanied 
him, looking eagerly through the interstices of the wood, 
saw on the southern side of the marsh a water-course 
wide and deep enough to contain several men. Having 
privately told the Master of this, he and they together 
passed through it, and coming out on the south-east side, 
they ran as quickly as they could for two or three li, 
when they met a Brahman at work ploughing the land. 

When they told this man about the robbers he was 
very much frightened, and immediately unyoked his 
oxen, and went with the Master to the village. Here 
he assembled the people by blowing the conch and 
beating of drums. When he had got about eighty men, 
each taking what weapon he could, they went in haste to 
the place where the robbers were. The robbers seeing the 
crowd of men, quickly dispersed and entered the forest. 

^ The original is ambiguous : it may refer to the number of the company 
with whom Hiuen-Tsiang travelled. 2 Qf^ -^q^ ii93» Naiij. B.'s Cat 


The Master of the Law forthwith went towards the 
marsh and liberated the men who were bound ; and all 
the people charitably divided their garments among them 
and conducted them to the village to pass the night. 

And now whilst the men were weeping and lamenting, 
the Master of the Law alone was smiling meriily (without 
sorrow). On this his companions asked him, and said : 
" The robbers have thoroughly despoiled us of our travel- 
ling robes and goods ; and we have only just escaped 
with our lives. Being beggared thus, our difficulties and 
dangers are at their extremest point. When we reflect 
and think of the circumstances that occurred in the 
forest, we cannot but experience the greatest sorrow. 
How is it that the Master alone does not share in our 
sorrow, but is able to keep a smile on his face ? '' 

Answering, he said : " The greatest gift which living 
creatures possess, is life. If life is safe, what need we 
care about the rest? So in the current books of my 
country it is said : * The great treasure of heaven and 
earth is life ; ^ whilst life lasts, so long let the great 
treasure be prized 1 ' A few garments and a few goods, 
why care for these so much ? '' 

From these remarks his companions understood fully 
that as the turbulent waves of a river do not disturb its 
pure water beneath, so was he. 

On the morrow he arrived at the eastern frontiers of 
the kingdom of Tcheka (TaMm) and entered a great 

On the west of the city on the north side of the road, 
there is a great forest of An-lo (Amra) trees ; in this forest 
dwelt a Brahman of 700 years (sie),^ who in appearance 
was but about thirty years old. His form and complexion 
were perfect (of the first class). His understanding was 
of a divine character : his reasoning powers, super- 
abundant. He had thoroughly investigated the chung 

1 Of. St. Matth. vi. 25. 8 Probably for 170. 

2 Probably Lahore. 


and pih ^astras (the Prdnyamula and the mtasdstra) ; he 
was emment in the study of the Vedas, and other books. 
He had two followers, each of whom was aged 1 00 years 
or more. When he had an interview with the Master 
of the Law he was overjoyed in affording him hospitality ; 
and when he heard of the adventure with the robbers he 
sent one of his servants to tell the people of the town, 
who were Buddhists, to prepare food for the Master of 
the Law. In this town there were several thousand 
dwellings ; a few of the people were believers in Buddha, 
but most of them were heretics {sacrificing heretics). 

Whilst in the country of Ka^mir, the renown of the 
Master of the Law had been noised abroad, and the 
neighbouring countries all knew of it : the messenger, 
therefore, from the Brahman, came to the neighbouring 
city, and announced as follows : " The priest from China 
has come to our neighbourhood, and robbers have spoiled 
him of his clothes and effects : now then let all who hear 
me understand that this is an opportunity for adding to 
the amount of their religious merit." 

In consequence of this address of the messenger, all 
hostile religious feeling was laid aside, and some 300 
persons of distinction, having heard the circumstances, 
came together and brought a length of cotton stuff and 
provisions for eating and drinking, which they respect- 
fully presented to him, placing them before him with 
extreme humility and reverence. 

The Master of the Law, after repeating certain forms 
of prayer (incantations), further proceeded to declare 
the doctrine of rewards and punishments, as a conse- 
quence of present conduct. In consequence of this the 
men arrived at a knowledge of truth and gave up their 
erroneous doctrine and returned to right reason. Thus 
with joyous words and light heart they held their inter- 
course with the Master and returned. 

The aged {Brahman) was overjoyed at this wonderful 
event. Meanwhile the Master divided the cotton stuff 

76 THE LtPB OF HIUEN-TSIANC^. [book li. 

among the different persons of the company, each person 
receiving several pieces for making garments, and when 
there was still some left, he presented five pieces {to 
the Brahman) in addition. 

Here he remained for one month studying the Sutras, 
the Peh-hm (Sata-^astra), the Kwang-peh-hm (Sata-s^stra 
vaipulyam). The author of this work {i.e, Deva 
Bodhisattva) was a disciple of Nagarjuna, who himself 
having received the doctrines of his master, expounded 
them with clearness. 

From this place going 500 li to the east, he arrived 
at the kingdom of Chi-na-po-tai (Chinapati), and took 
up his quarters in the convent called Tu-she-sa-na (?). 
Here there was a renowned priest named Pi-ni-to-poh-la- 
p6 (Vinitaprahha). He was of a good reputation and 
had mastered the three pitakas. He had himself com- 
posed a commentary on the Panchaskhanda Sastra, and 
on the Yidyamatrasiddhi-Trida^a^astra. 

On this account the Master remained there fourteen 
months. He studied the Abhidharma Sastra, the Abhi- 
dharma-prakarana-s^sana-S^stra, the Nyayadv^ra-taraka 
Sastra, and others. 

To the south-east of the capital, after going SO li or so, 
we arrive at the Tamasavana Saiigharama ; in this convent 
there are some 300 priests, who belong to the Sarvasti- 
vadina school. 

The thousand Buddhas of the Bhadra Kalpa, are to 
assemble in this place with both men and Devas, to preach 
the law to them. 

In the 300th year after the Nirvana of Sakya 
Tathagata, there lived a master of Sdstras called Katyayana 
who composed in this place the Jnana-prasthana Sastra. 

From this, going north-east 140 or 150 li, we come 
to the kingdom of JS^landhara.^ On entering this country 
the pilgrim went to the ^NTagaradhana convent, where 

^ Vide Records, i. 170. 


there was an eminent priest called Chaiidravarma, who 
was thoroughly acquainted with the Tripitaka. 

On tliis account he rested here four months, studying 
the Praharana-pdda-vibdshd-Sdstra. 

From this, going north-east after traversing precipitous 
mountain passes and going 700 li or so, he arrived at 
the kingdom of Kuliita. 

From Kuliita, going about 700 li south across a 
mountain range and over a river, we arrive at the kingdom 
of She-to-tu-lu ipatadru). 

Going south-west from this kingdom about 800 1% 
we come to the kingdom of Po-li-ye-ta-lo {Pdrydtra), 

From this, going east about 500 1% we come to the 
kingdom of Mo-t'u-lo (Mathura). 

There are Stupas containing relics of the bodies of 
Sakya Tathagata and his holy disciples still existing in 
this place : to wit, of S&riputra, of Maudgalyayana, of 
Purnamaitrey^niputra, of Upali, of Ananda, of Eahula, 
and of Maiijus'ri. 

Every year, on religious festival days, priests and 
disciples assemble at these several stupas, according to 
their school, and offer religious worship and offerings. 

The followers of the Abhidharma offer to Stoputra; 
the Quietists (those who practice meditation) offer to 
Maudgalyayana ; the students of the Sutras offer to Purna- 
maitreyaniputra ; the followers of the Vinaya offer to 
Up^li ; the Bhikshunis offer to Ananda ; the Sramaneras 
offer to K&,hula ; the followers of the Great Vehicle offer 
to the Bodhisattvas. 

Five or six li to the east of the city there is a moun- 
tain Saiigharama which was founded by the venerable 
Upagupta : there are herein relics of his nails and hair. 

In a precipice to the north of the Sanghar^ma there 
is a stone house about twenty feet high and thirty feet 


wide. Within this cave there are heaped up a number of 
bamboo splints, about four inches long. The venerable 
Upagupta,^ when he preached the law and led a husband 
and wife to the attainment of the fruit of Arhatship, 
for each one so converted deposited in this cave one 
bamboo slip : but as to others (not so related) although 
they attained the fruit, he did not record their conversion. 

Going north-east from this about 500 li, we come to 
Sa-ta-ni-shi-fa4o (SthdnSsvara) . Still going east about 
400 li we come to Lu-le-na {Sriighna T)?' 

On the east this kingdom borders on the river Ganges, 
on the north it abuts on a great mountain {range), 
through its centre flows the river Yamuna (Jtcmnd). 

Going about 800 li to the east of this river we come 
to the source of the river Ganges. This head-stream is 
about three or four li in width ; it flows south-east, and 
where it enters the sea it is about ten li in width. Its 
waters are sweet and soft to the taste, and the stream 
carries with it sands of extreme fineness. The ordinary 
books of the country speak of it as the "blessed River;" 
those who bathe in it are cleansed from sin ; those who 
drink its waters, or even rinse their mouth therefrom, 
escape from all dangers and calamities, and when they 
die forthwith are born in heaven, and enjoy happiness. 

So the common folk, men and women, are always 
congregating on the banks of the river. But this is 
merely the heretical belief of the district, and is not true. 
In after times, when Deva Bodhisattva showed them the 
right meaning of all this, then the erroneous belief began 
to disappear. 

There was a renowned priest in this kingdom named 
Jayagupta, who had well studied the Tripitaka. The 
Master of the Law therefore remained here one winter 

1 Upagupta, so celebrated iu the Buddhist community after the Coun- 
Northern Legends, is unknown in tlie cil of V^is^li. 

Pali Records. This shows the radical ^ AsM. Julien observes, we must sub- 
character of the separation of the stitute Su-lu-kin-na for the sjmbok 

given in the text; vide Me-cords^ i. t86. 


and half the spring season, and heard him explain the 
Vibhash^ according to the school of the Sautrantikas. 

After this he crossed to the eastern bank of the river 
and came to the kingdom of Matipura. 

The king of this country is of the caste of Sudras. 
There are some ten Sangharamas and about eight hundred 
priests here. They study the Little Vehicle, according to 
the school of the SarvS,stivMins. To the south of the 
capital four or five li, there is a little Sangharama with 
about fifty priests in it ; it was here that Gunaprabha of 
old composed the Pin-chin "^ and other S^stras, amounting 
to about one hundred in all. This doctor was originally a 
native of Parvata, and was a student of the Great Vehicle, 
but afterwards he became attached to the Little Vehicle. 

At this time the Arhat Devas^na had visited the 
Tushita heaven. Then Gunaprabha wished to see Mai- 
tr^ya to dispel some doubts, which hindered his religious 
progress. He therefore asked Devasena to transport 
him by his spiritual power to the courts of that heaven ; 
having looked upon Maitreya he saluted him without 
prostrating himself: "I am a religious mendicant {he 
thought) in full orders ; Maitreya occupies this heaven 
like a layman ; it is not becoming that I should prostrate 
myself in worship before him." 

And so he came and went three times, but rendered 
him no homage. He was puffed up by self-conceit and 
got no explanation of his doubts.^ 

Three or four li to the south of the Sangh4r4ma of 
Gunaprabha, there is a Sangharama with about two 
hundred priests, who also study the Little Vehicle. It 
was here the Doctor of S^stras called Sanghabhadra 
ended the years of his life. This doctor was originally 
a native of Ka^mir. He was a man of distinguished 
learning and great talents. He thoroughly understood 
the Vibhash4 of the Sarv^stivMin school. 

1 Vide Records, vol. i. p. 191, n. 

^ Vide the whole of this story, JRecordSj i. 19a 


At this time Vasubandhii B6dhisattva had also dis- 
tinguished himself for his profound learning. He had 
already composed the Abhidharma - Kosha - Sastra to 
confute the professors of the Vibh^sh^. His deep 
reasoning and ornate style were the admiration of all 
Western students. The very spirits and demons also 
studied and followed his teaching. 

Prom the time of Sanghabhadra's appearance (as an 
author), his mind had become full of impatient desire. 

After twelve years of extended reflection he composed 
the Kosha-karika-^astra, in 25,000 ^lokas, and eighty 
myriad words. Having finished it, he longed for an 
interview with Vasubandhu, to settle the truth or false- 
hood of his points. But he died without attaining this 
object. Afterwards Vasubandhu saw the treatise, and 
loudly praised its wise comments, and said : '' The force 
of the thoughts herein contained is not inferior to that 
of the followers of the Vibh'^sh^ school. JSTevertheless, 
as its leading principles are entirely in agreement with 
my own, let it be named the Kyayanusara Sastra ; " 
accordingly it was so done, in agreement with this 

After Sanghabhadra's death they erected to his memory 
a stupa in an Amra grove, that still remains ; by the 
side of this grove there is a stupa which contains the 
relics of Vimalamitra, a Doctor of Sastras. This doctor 
was a native of the country of Kasniir; he belonged 
to the school of the Sarvastavadins, and had travelled 
through the five Indias, and was deeply versed in the 

Being about to return to his own country, as he passed 
on his way by the stnpa of Sanghabhadra, he was deeply 
affected to think that the undertaking of this doctor had 
not been matured and published before his death; and 
so, moved by the thought, he took an oath that he would 
himself compose such treatises as would overcome the 
principles of the Great Vehicle, and put out the name of 


Vasubandhu; and so he thought to perpetuate for ever 
the fame of the Doctor (Sanghabhadra). 

After having said this, his intellect became confused ; 
his bowels and tongue protruded, and his blood burst 
forth over all his body.-^ Then perceiving that the origin 
of his sufferings was from his perverse views, he tore up 
his writings and with deep contrition exhorted his disciples 
never to abuse the principles of the Great Vehicle, and 
so saying, he died. Where he died the earth opened 
and there is a great ditch. 

In this kingdom there was an eminent priest called 
Mitrasena, ninety years of age. He was a disciple of 
Gunaprabha and deeply versed in the Tripitakas. The 
Master of the Law stopped with him half the spring and 
the summer following, studying the Tattvasatya sastra, 
the Abhidharma-jnana-prasthana-^astra, and others. 

Proceeding northward from this 300 li or so, we come 
to the country of Po-lo-hi-mo-pu-lo (Brahmapura) ; again 
south-east of this, going 400 li or so, we come to the 
kingdom of Hi-cM-ta-lo (Ahikshetra). 

Again, going south 200 li or so, we cross the Ganges, 
and then going south-west we arrive at the country of 
Pi-lo-na ^-na (Virasana). 

Again, going east 200 li or so, we come to the country 
of Kie-pi-tha (Kapitha). 

About twenty li to the east of the city there is a 
Sangh^r^ma, within the court of which there are three 
ladders composed of the precious substances ; ^ they are 
placed {side hy side) in a direction from south to north 
and face the east. It was down one of these that Buddha 
of old descended from the Taryastriihshas heaven, and 
returned to Jambudvipa after ]3reaching for the sake of 
his queen-mother M4ya.^ The middle ladder is of gold, 

1 Records^ i. 197. p. 43 n. 2, the author speaks of M^ya 

2 Na for shan. Records^ i. 201. being re-born in the Tuf^ita heaven, 
8 Literally, "three precious lad- adopting an error of Eitel's, which he 

ders." had corrected. 

^ In Legge's translation of Fd-hien^ 



the one on the left of crystal, the one on the right of 
silver. Tathagata, leaving the Sadclharma Hall/ accom- 
panied by the congregation of Devas, descended by the 
middle ladder ; Mahabrahma, with a white chowrie in his 
hand, descended by the silver ladder on the right ; whilst 
on the left Sakradeva, with a precious parasol, came down 
by the crystal ladder.^ 

At this time a 100,000 devas and the great B6dhi- 
sattvas followed him in his descent. 

Several centuries ago these ladders existed in their 
integrity ; but at the present time they have disappeared 
(been swallowed up). Kings who came afterwards, from a 
principle of affection and respect, have reconstructed the 
foundations of these ladders with stone and brick, orna- 
mented with various gems, to a height of about seventy 
feet, and over this they have erected a Vihara, in which is 
placed a figure of Buddha in stone.^ On the right and 
left of this statue are the figures of Brahma and Sakra, 
very glorious in appearance and just as in the originaL 
At the side is a stone pillar in height seventy feet, placed 
there by A^6ka-raja. 

JSTear this is a stone foundation (raised path) fifty paces 
or so in length, and seven feet high ; this is the spot 
where Buddha formerly paced to and fro. 

From this, going north-west 200 1% we come to Kie- 
jo-kio-she-kwo (Kanatcj), 

This kingdom is four thousand li in circuit ; the capital 
borders on the Ganges on the West ; it is about twenty 
li in length, and five or six li across. 

There are about 100 Sangharamas and 10,000 priests. 

1 That is, the preaching haU of correct enough, and shows that the 
S^kra. symbol tang in Fd-hien {cap. 17), 

2 Vide Records, i. 203. referring to this story, ought to be 
^ Julien translates, "in the middle translated "facing" or "opposite 

of which is placed," &c. This is to " the middle ladder, &c. 


The priests study the Great and Small Vehicle promis- 

The king is a Bais Eajput.^ His name is Harsha- 
vardhana ; his father's name was Prakaravardhana ; ^ 
his senior brother was called Eajyavardhana. Harsha- 
vardhana, the present king, is virtuous and patriotic; 
all people celebrate his praises in songs. 

At the time {when Bdjyavardhana was on the throne) 
the king of Karna-survarna, in Eastern India, whose name 
was Sasanka-r4ja, hating the superior military talents of 
this king, made a plot and murdered him. 

Then the great minister Bhani ^ and the subordinate 
officers, afflicted to see the people without a ruler, agreed 
to place on the throne his younger brother SiMditya.* 
His royal appearance and demeanour were recognised, in 
conjunction with his vast military talents. His qualifica- 
tions moved heaven and earth ; his sense of justice was 
admired by Devas and men. He was soon able to avenge 
the injuries received by his brother, and to make himself 
master of India. His renown was spread abroad every- 
where, and all his subjects reverenced his virtues. The 
empire having gained rest, then the people were at peace. 

On this he put an end to warlike expeditions, and 
began to store up in the magazines, the lances and 
swords. He gave himself up to religious duties ; he 
prohibited the slaughter of any living creature. He 
himself set the example, and ordered all his people to 
abstain from flesh meat, and he founded Sangh^rfi^mas 
wherever there were sacred traces of religion. 

Yearly during three or seven days (or, perhaps, during 
three seven-days, i.e. three weeks) he provided food for the 
whole body of priests. 

Every fifth year he convoked a grand assembly of 
deliverance (Mahd-mSksha-parishad), and distributed the 

^ Vide Records, i. 209, n. 12. is also called Bhandi (Max Miiller's 

2 For Prabh^karavarddhana. India, p. 288). 

^ Vide Records, i. 210, n. 18. He * Thatis,SiUdityaHarsliavardhana. 


stores of his treasuries in charity. To describe all his con- 
duct, would be but to tell again the deeds of Sudana.^ 

To the north-west of the city is a Stiipa about 200 feet 

Six or seven li to the south-east, south of the river 
Ganges, is a Stupa also about 200 feet high. Both were 
built by A^6ka-raja, in places where Buddha had 
formerly preached the law. 

When the Master entered the kingdom he went to the 
temple called Bhadra-Vih^ra. He stopped there three 
months, and under the direction of Viryasena, a doctor of 
the three Pitakas, he read the Vibhasha of Buddhadasa, 
which is called Varmavibhasha-vydJcarana,^ 

^ That is, Prince Visvdntara, the this passage. Julieii seems to have 

hero of the Wessantara J^taka. He had a different text. The sentence 

must be distinguished from Sudatta, in my original is, *' Yueh (i.e., viz.) 

i.e. Andthapindika. This is plain chan-pi-po-sha-ki.^^ Instead of 2/Me/fc, 

from a comparison with ;S*i*n^-!Fw?2's Julien's text seems to have had /SAmf/. 

account {Records, i xcviii.) Julien's Concerning the Vibh^sh^ composed 

note therefore [in loc.) is in error. by Buddhadasa, vide Records^ i. 230. 

2 I see no other way of translating 



From Ayddhyd to Hiranyaparvata. 

From this, going 600 li or so to the south-east and 
crossing the Ganges, on the south of the river we come 
to the kingdom of 'O-yit-to (Ay6dhya). There are here 
about one hundred temples with several thousand priests, 
who study both the Small and the Great Vehicle. 

In the capital city is an old Sangh4rama. Here the 
Bodhisattva Vasubandhu composed his treatises on the 
Great and Little Vehicle, and preached for the good of 
the community. 

North-west of the city four or five 1% and by the side 
of the river Ganges, is a great Sangharama, in which is a 
Stupa about 200 feet high. This w^as built by A^oka 
raja on the spot where Buddha in old days delivered the 
Law for three months. 

By the side of this Stupa is a spot where the four 
Buddhas of the past age walked for exercise. 

To the south-west of the city five or six K, is an old 
Sangharama ; this is the place where Asaiigha Bodhisattva 
explained the Law. The Bodhisattva, during the night, 
ascended to the Tu^ita heaven, and received from M^itreya 
Bddhisattva the Yoga-sastra, the Alamkara-Mahay4na- 
sastra, and the Madhyanta-vibhangha-sastra. The next 
day he descended from the heaven, and declared the Law 
for the sake of the community. 

Asangha, who is also called Wu-cho, was a man of 
Gandhara. He was born in the middle of the thousand 
years following the Nirvana of Buddha,^ and became a 

1 That is, the middle of **the period of images," beginning 500 years after 
the Nirvana. 

§6 THE LiFB OF HiUEN-TSIANG. [book hi. 

disciple in the school of the Mahisasakas. Afterwards 
he joined the school of the Great Vehicle. His brother, 
Vasubandhu, became a disciple in the school of the 
Sarv^stivadins, but afterwards joined the Great Vehicle. 
Both these brothers were, in point of endowments, vessels 
full of wisdom and holiness. Asangha possessed vast 
ability in composition, and wrote many ^astras, in ex- 
planation of, and comment on, the Great Vehicle. He 
was the principal composer of ^eistras in India. For 
example, he wrote the Mahay^na-samparigraha-sastra/ 
the Prakaranaryavacha-sastra-karika, the Abhidharma 
sastra, the Vidy^matra-^&stra, the Kosha-sastra, and 

The Master of the Law left the kingdom of Ayodhya, 
having paid reverence to the sacred traces, and following 
the course of the river Ganges, proceeded eastward, being 
on board a vessel with about eighty other fellow-passen- 
gers. He wished to reach the kingdom of ' O-ye-rmi-hhi 
(Hayamukha).^ After going about a hundred 1% both 
banks of the river were shrouded by the thick foliage of 
an A^6ka forest, and amid these trees on either bank 
were concealed some ten pirate boats. Then these boats, 
propelled by oars, all at once burst forth into the mid- 
stream. Some of those in the ship, terrified at the sight, 
cast themselves into the river, whilst the pirates, taking 
the ship in tow, brought it to the bank. They then ordered 
the men to take off their clothes, and searched them in 
quest of jewels and precious stones. 

Now these pirates pay worship to Durga, a spirit of 
heaven, and every year during the autumn, they look 
out for a man of good form and comely features, whom 
they kill, and offer his flesh and blood in sacrifice to 
their divinity, to procure good fortune. Seeing that the 
Master of the Law was suitable for their purpose, both 

1 B. Nanj. Cat., No. 1202. 

2 Yide Eecords, &c. , vol. i. p. 229. 


in respect of his distinguished bearing and his bodily 
strength and appearance, they exchanged joyful glances, 
and said, "We were letting the season for sacrificing 
to our god pass by, because we could not find a suitable 
person for it, but now this Sraman is of noble form and 
pleasing features — let us kill him as a sacrifice, and we 
shall gain certain good fortune." 

The Master of the Law replied, "If this poor and 
defiled body of mine is indeed suitable for the purpose 
of the sacrifice you propose, I, in truth, dare not grudge 
(the offering), but as my intention in coming from a dis- 
tance was to pay reverence to the image of Bodhi and 
the Grtdhrakuta Mountain, and to inquire as to the 
cliaracter of the Sacred Books and the Law (or, the Law 
of the Sacred Books), and as this purpose has not yet 
been accomplished, if you, my noble benefactors (ddnapatis) 
kill this body of mine, I fear it will bring you misfortune 
(instead of good fortune)'' 

Moreover, his fellow-passengers all, with one voice, 
asked them to spare him, and some even prayed to be 
allowed to die in his stead ; but the pirates would not 

Then the captain of the gang despatched some men 
with water to arrange the ground, and to erect in the 
midst of the flowering grove an altar besmeared with 
mud. He then commanded two of the company to take 
their drawn knives and to bind the Master of the Law 
upon the altar. And now, when they were about to use 
their knives for the purpose of sacrificing him, the 
Master of the Law showed no sign of fear in his face, 
insomuch that all the pirates were moved to astonish- 

When he saw there was no escape, however, he spoke 

to the pirates and begged them to allow him a little 

time and not to crowd round him painfully — but " let 

me," he said, " with a joyous mind, take my departure." 

Then the Master of the Law, with an undivided mind 


bent on the courts of Tusita heaven, thought on the 
Bodhisattva Maitreya, and earnestly prayed to be born 
in that place, that he might pay reverence and his 
religious offerings (to the Bodhisattva), and receive from 
him the Yog^chariya-bhumi-^^stra, and listen to the 
sound of the excellent Law. Then having perfected 
himself throughout in wisdom, " let me return (he prayed) 
and be born here below, that I may instruct and convert 
these men, and cause them to practise themselves in 
doing good and to give up their evil deeds, and thus by 
diffusing, far and wide, the benefits of religion, to give 
rest to all the world." 

Then the Master of the Law, paying worship to the 
Buddhas of the ten regions, collected his mind into perfect 
composure, and sitting still, fixed his thoughts on Maitreya 
without any interruption. Thus he seemed in his inner- 
most thoughts as if he rose up above Mount Sumeru and 
successively ascending one, two, three heavens, he gazed 
upon the courts of Tusita, the place of Maitreya, with its 
excellently precious adornments (galleries) and the multi- 
tude of devas surrounding" him on every side. At this 
time his body and soul were ravished with joy, he 
knew nothing of the altar on which he was, he had no 
recollection of the robbers. And now, whilst his fellow 
passengers gave way to cries and tears, suddenly a black 
tempest (ty;phoon) arose from the four quarters of heaven, 
smiting down the trees ; clouds of sand flew on every 
side ; and the lashing waves of the river tossed the 
boats to and fro. The robbers and their company, 
greatly terrified, asked the companions of the Master, 
" Whence comes this Sraman ? — what is his name and 
title ? '' and so on. They, answering, said : " He comes 
from the country of China — he is the renowned person 
who is in search of the Law ; if you, my masters, kill 
him, your guilt will be immeasurable ; look now and see 
the winds and waves — these are but indications of the 
anger of the spirits of heaven : haste then to repent ! " 


The pirates then, filled with fear, urged each other 
to repentance and confession of their fault; then with 
bowed heads they made profound obeisance (or, they 
embraced the religion of Buddha), And now one of the 
robbers accidentally touching the Master of the Law 
with his hand (or, touching the hand of the Master of the 
Zatv), he opened his eyes and said to the robber, "Has 
the hour come ? " The robber answered : '* We dare not 
hurt the Master ! we pray you accept our repentance ! " 
The Master then accepted their reverence and con- 
fession of faults, arid then preached to them about the 
future punishment in Avichi-^ of those who gave them- 
selves up to murder, robbery, and impious sacrifices, and 
other evil deeds. "How would you then risk the woes 
of the long-during asankheya of ages for the sake of this 
body of yours, which is but in point of time as the 
lightning flash or the dew of the morning ? " 

The robbers then bowed their heads and confessed 
their faults, saying : " We indeed, individually, were 
perverted by a foolish tone of mind, and led to do what 
we ought not to do, and to sacrifice (j^ay religious rites) 
to what we ought not to sacrifice. If we had not met 
with the Master — whose religious merit has moved even 
the mysterious powers of heaven — how should we ever 
have been led to repentance ? And now we ask to give 
up from the present day these evil ways of ours, and we 
pray the Master to be witness to our sincerity 1 ** 

On this they each encouraged one another to deeds 
of amendment, and collecting their various instruments 
of robbery together, they cast them into the river, and 
whatever clothes or private property they had taken, 
they restored these to their rightful owners, and then 
they took on themselves the five obligations of a lay- 

Then the winds and the floods subsided, and the 

1 The lowest of the Buddhist heUs. 


pirates were all overcome with joy, and bowed their 
heads in adoration. His fellow voyagers, moreover, were 
filled with surprise and admiration -more than ever, whilst 
those present and absent who heard of the event could 
not help exclaiming with wonder at the occurrence : " If 
it were not for the power of his high resolve in seeking 
for the Law, this could not have come to pass ! " 

From this, going east about 300 li, after crossing the 
Ganges to the north side, we come to 'O-ye-muh-hM 

From this, going south-east 700 li or so, after crossing 
to the south side of the Ganges, on the north of the 
Kiver JumnS,, we come to the country of Prayaga. 

To the south-west of the town, in a grove of Cham- 
paka flowers, there is a stupa built by Asoka-raja. This 
is the spot where in old days Buddha overcame the heretic 
(or, heretics). By the side of it is a Sangharama. Here 
Deva Bodhisattva composed the enlarged Sata-^astra and 
vanquished the heretics of the Little Vehicle. To the 
east of the capital is the spot where the two rivers join, 
and to the west of this point is a level plain about four- 
teen or fifteen li in circuit. The ground is perfectly level 
and straight. From ancient days till now, royal and 
noble personages endowed with virtue and love, in the 
distribution of their charitable offerings, have all resorted 
to this spot for the purpose ; and hence the name of the 
Field of Great Beneficence has been given to it. At the 
present time Siladitya r^ja, following this custom, has 
distributed here the accumulated wealth of five years, 
during a period of seventy-five days. From the three 
precious objects {Buddha^ Dharma, Samgha), down to the 
poorest orphan, there is no one but has shared in his 

From this, in a south-west direction, we enter a great 


forest, in which we frequently encounter evil beasts and 
wild elephants. After going 500-^ li or so, we arrive at 
Kiau-shang-mi (Kau^ambi). 

There are about ten Sangharamas here, with some 
300 priests. Within the city is an old (or, ruined) palace 
(i.e. palace-precinct), in which is a large Vihara about sixty 
feet high, in which is a sandal-wood figure of Buddha, 
surmounted by a stone canopy, made by King Ud^yana. 

In old times Tathagata dwelt during an entire season 
of Eest in the Trayastriihshas heaven, for the purpose of 
preaching to his mother. The king, thinking of him with 
affection, requested Mgiudgaly&yana to transport a clever 
sculptor to this heaven, who might observe the honourable 
features and JBgure of Buddha, and on his return might 
carve from sandal- wood a true likeness of his appearance. 

When the Lord of the World came down again, this 
was the figure which arose to meet him. 

South of this is a ruined dwelling, the old house of 
the nobleman^ Golira. 

Not far south of the city is an old Sangh4rama, which 
was built on the garden-site of this nobleman. In it 
is a stupa, about 200 feet high, which was raised by 

Again, south-east -of this, is a double-storeyed tower, 
where Yasubandhu composed the Vidyamatra-siddhi- 

Again, to the east, is an Amra grove, in which are 
some old foundation stones.^ This is where Asaiigha 
Bodhisattva composed the Prakaranaryavacha - sastra- 

Going about 500 li from this, we come to the kingdom 

1 In my translation of the >S'^-2/'M-^•^, Fa-hien only uses tlie symbol ku ; 
p. 234, I have, by mistake, said that showing plainly enough that Fa-hien 
Hwui-lih(t.e. the present work) states would denote that the buildings he 
the distance as 50 li. refers to are in ruins. Julien also 

2 Chang-cM. translates ku by ruins, Jul, 1. 122, 
^ Ku-ki. This expression is con- 1. 11. 

stantly used by Hiuen-Tsiang where ^ N. B., 1202. 


of Pi-go-kia (Visdkhd), It has about twenty Sang- 
haramas and some 3000 priests, belonging, to the Sam- 
matiya school of the Little Vehicle. 

On the left-hand side of the road which goes south- 
east is a great Sangharama. This is where in old days 
the Arhat Deva^arman composed the Vijnana-kaya- 
pMa-^astra, which affirms the non-existence of "self," 
or, of (individitaT) man. Here also the Arhat Gopa com- 
posed the sastra Shing-Kiau-in-Shih, which affirmed the 
existence of "self," and of ^^individual) man." These views 
of religious doctrine led to many wrangling treatises. 

Here also is the place where Dharmap^la Bodhisattva 
during seven days overthrew a hundred writers of sdstras 
belonging to the Little Vehicle. By the side of this spot 
is the place where Tathagata during six years preached 
the Law. 

There is a tree here about seventy feet high. Here 
in former days Buddha, having cleaned his teeth, flung 
the fragments of the wood on the ground. Immediately 
they took root, and the umbrageous tree which grew up 
remains there till now. The followers of heretical views 
often came to destroy it, but as often as they cut it down 
it grew up again as flourishing and verdant as at first. 

Going north-east from this 500 li or so, we arrive at 
the kingdom of Shi-lo-fu-shi-ti (Sravastl). It is about 
6000 li in circuit and has several hundred Sangh^ramas 
and several thousand priests,^ all of whom belong to the 
Sammatiya school. The capital of this country was where 
King Prasenajita dwelt when Buddha was alive. 

Within the city there are the old ruins (ku M) of the 
king's palace. 

Not far east from this is a stupa erected on some old 
foundations; this was the spot where stood a great 

^ This seems to contradict the ac- then read, "the Sanghdr^mas amount 

count found in the Si-yu-ki Records to 100 and the disciples amount to 

(ii. 2), unless the symbol ^*sho" be looo. 
taken as a verb ; the passage would 


preaching hall erected by King Pras^najita for Buddha's 

Next we see a tower ; this was where stood the Vih^ra 
of Prajapati Bhikshuni, the elder maternal aunt of 

East of this again is a tower ; this marks the spot of 
the ruined house ^ of Sudatta, By the side of the house 
is a great stiipa ; this is where the AngulimS.lya gave up 
his evil design (or, heresy). 

Pive or six li to the south of the city is the grove of 
Jeta, the same as *' the garden of the Priend of the orphans 
and desolate." There was formerly a Sangh^r^ma here, 
but now it has been overturned and destroyed. 

On the right and left side of the eastern gate ^ there 
have been built stone pillars about seventy feet high. 
These were placed there by A^6ka r^ja. All the rooms 
are completely destroyed except one little stone chambei 
in which there is a golden figure. This figure was made 
by King Pras^najita when Buddha in old days ascended 
to the Trayastriihshas heaven to preach for his mother's 
sake. The king's heart being deeply affected, and hearing 
that King Ud^yana had caused a sandal-wood figure to be 
made, he, on that account, made this one. 

Behind the convent, not far, is where the Brahmachari 
heretic killed the woman and accused Buddha of the 

To the east of the convent about 100 paces is a great 
chasm; this is where Devadatta went down alive into 
hell after trying to poison Buddha. To the south of this, 
again, is a great ditch ; this is the place where the Bhikshu 
Kukall went down alive into hell after slandering Buddha. 
To the south of this, about 800 paces, is the place where 

^I might perhaps say '* ruinous " on each side of the door, when open, 

house," but the whole context shows there was a stone pillar" (0. c, p. 56). 

that ku has the sense of what we Were the pillars not there when the 

should call dilapidated. door was shut? 

2 That is, of the "entrance gate "or ^ I have no doubt that the woman 

''principal door;" it is difficult to Sundarl was killed, and not that she 

know what Dr. Legge means in his killed another, 
translation of Fa-hien, when he says, 


the Brahman woman Chan^cha went down alive into hell 
after slandering Buddha. All these chasms are without 
any visible bottom (are bottomless pits). 

To the eastward of the Sanghar^ma about seventy 
paces is a Vihara-Sanghar^ma, lofty and large, in which is 
a sitting figure of Buddha facing the east. This is the 
place where in old times Buddha disputed with all the 

To the east of this, again, is a D6va temple equal in 
size to the Vih^ra ; when the sun's rays move in the 
direction of these buildings — the shadow of the D6va 
temple does not reach the Vihara, but the shadow of the 
Vihara always enshrouds the temple. 

East from this three or four li, is a Stupa ; this is the 
place where Sariputra discussed with the heretics. 

North- west of the capital city sixty li or so, is an old 
(ruinous) city. This was the town of the father of Ka^yapa 
Buddha, who lived during the Bhadra Kalpa when men's 
lives reached to 20,000 years. 

To the south of the city is the place where (this) 
Buddha first saw his father after having arrived at 
perfect enlightenment. 

To the north of the city is a tower. This tower 
contains the relics of the entire body of Ka^yapa Buddha. 
All these were founded by A^oka-raja. 

From this, going south-east about 800 li, we come to 
the kingdom of Kapilavastu. This country is about 
4000 li in circuit; the capital, as well as some 1000 
villages, are all waste and ruined. The inner city is 
fifteen li round ; it is completely encircled and is 
exceedingly strong."^ 

Within the city are some old foundations (ku hi) '^ 

1 But probably there is a mistake the ruined condition of the buildings 
in the text, and it should be '* it is is denoted in F^-hien by the symbol 
built of bricks and is," &c. " ku," 

2 In this and all the following cases 


belonging to the chief palace of Suddhodana raja. Over 
these ruins a Vihara has been built in which is a figure 
of the king. 

To the north of this, again, are some old foundations ; 
these belong to the sleeping hall of Queen M4ya. Over 
this site is built a Vihara, in which is a figure of the 
queen. By the side of this is a Vihara ; this is where 
S4kya B6dhisattva descended as a sjpirit^ into the womb 
of his mother. In it is placed a picture of B6dhisattva 
descending to be born. 

The Sthavira school says that this took place on the 
30th day of the month U-tan-lo-'an-sha-cha (Uttard" 
shddha), descending as a spirit into his mother*s womb 
on that evening. This would be the isth day of the 
fifth month (with us). The other schools fix the 23rd 
day of the month, which would correspond with the 8th 
day of the fifth month (with us). 

To the north-east of this is a Stupa ; this is the spot 
where the Eishi Asita took the horoscope of the prince 

On the left and right of the city is the place where 
the royal prince contended in athletic sports with the 

Again there is the place where the royal prince left 
the city on horseback {i.e, when he gave up his secular 

And there are the places where he turned back in his 
chariot, having first seen outside the four gates, the old 
man, the sick man, the dead man, and the Sraman, who 
had given up the world from disgust. 

1 Julien translates the passage as M^j'-a) is on the waU of the palace 

though '^shin " referred to M^ya, and (cf. v. 4. Kiuen I. of the Buddhacha* 

he makes the expression equal to rita). This leads me to observe that 

"his divine mother." But this has the descent of Buddha as a spirit, does 

no authority, and is expressly con- not mean that he descended in the 

tradicted in the Si-pu-ki (K. vi. fol. 9. shape of an elej^hant, but that he was 

a. col. 2 and col. 5), where it is said riding on an elejjhant, but being a 

*^the picture of the descent as a sp /?•?'«! was invisible. Fzci'e the Chinese 

spirit " (there being no mention of picture in Ledge's Fa-hien, p. 65. 


From this, going through a wild forest about 5 00 li 
east, we come to the country of Earaa (Eamagrama). 
This country has but few houses or inhabitants. 

To the east of the old city is a brick Stupa about 
100 feet high. After the Nirvana of Tath^gata the old 
king of this country, having obtained a share of the 
relics (^artras), returned home and built this stupa. It 
constantly emits rays of glory. 

By the side of it is a Nelga tank. The N4ga fre- 
quently changes his appearance into that of a man, and 
as such encircles the tower in the practice of religion 
{i.e. horning religioiosly with his right hand towards the 
tower). Wild elephants, wdth flowers held in their 
trunks, constantly come to offer their religious offerings. 

Close by the side of this Stupa is a Sangharama of 
which a Sraman^ra is the subdirector {Karmaddna)} The 
tradition is this : — There was formerly a Bhikshu who had 
induced some fellow-disciples to travel afield to pay 
reverence {to the sacred spots). Then they saw the wild 
elephants, carrying flowers in their trunks, lay them 
down before this tower. And again they saw them dig 
up the herbage with their tusks, and in their trunks bring 
water for sprinkling; the company seeing this were 
astonished and affected with emotion. 

There was one Bhikshu in the company who resolved 
to give up the great rules of moral obligation, and remain 
there on the spot to render his religious offerings {at the 
shrine). Speaking to the others, he said: ''The wild 
elephants, beast born as they are, know how to reverence 
this sacred tower ; they gather flowers, and sprinkle water, 
and sweep ! How then can we, belonging to the human 
race and devotees of Buddha, behold this desert spot and 
not render our religious assistance ! " 

So taking leave of his companions he remained there. 
He constructed a dwelling-place, cleared the land, and 

* ^ ^^^ li 


planted flowers, and cultivated fruits : he let not a moment 
pass in idleness, either during winter or summer. 

The people of the neighbouring countries, hearing of 
him, all contributed of their wealth and valuables to 
construct therewith a Sangharama, and they besought 
this priest to take the direction of the establishment as 
steward. From this time through successive generations 
things have been managed according to this old plan. 

Going about lOO li to the eastward of the Sr^man^ra 
convent through a great forest, we find a Stiipa built by 
A^oka-raja. It was here that the prince royal, having 
passed through the city, and reaching this spot, took off 
his ornaments and clothes and the hair jewel of his sacred 
tiara, and gave them to Chandaka. Both here and where 
he cut off his hair there are commemorative towers. 

Having left the forest we come to the kingdom of 
Ku-shi-na-kHe'-lo} This place is altogether desert and 

Within the city at the north-east angle is a Stupa 
built by A46ka-raj4 on the site of the old house of 
Chunda. In the house is a well which was dug when 
he was about to make his religious offering. The water 
^of this well is still sweet and clear. 

Three or four li to the north-west of the town we 
cross the ' 0-shi-to-fa-tai (Ajitavati) river. Not far from 
the bank of the river we come to a ^^la grove. This 
tree resembles the Ho : only its bark is a greenish-blue, 
and its leaves white, and 'very shining and lustrous. 
There are four trees in pairs, of equal height ; this is the 
place where Buddha died. 

There is a great Yihfi;ra here, built of bricks, within 
which is a figure of the Mrvana of Tath^gata ; his head 
is towards the north, and his appearance is as if he were 
asleep. By the side of the A^ih^ra is a Stupa about 200 
feet high, constructed by Asoka raja. There is, moreover, 

^ Kusinagara., vide Records, ii. 31. 



a stone column standing here, which records the circum- 
stances of the Nirvana of Buddha, but does not state the 
year or the month. 

The current tradition relates that Buddha lived in the 
world eighty years, and that he entered Nirvana the i Sth 
day of the latter half of the month Yaisakha, which 
corresponds with the i Sth day of the second month {with 
us). The school of the Sarv^stiv&dins again say that 
Buddha entered Nirvana during the second half of the 
month Kartika. This would correspond with the Sth 
day of the ninth month {with us). 

Some say that 1200 years have passed since the 
Nirvana: others, i 500 years: others, more than 900 years, 
but not yet the full period of 1000 years.-^ 

Again, there are towers erected where Tath^gata, sitting 
up in his golden coffin, preached on behalf of his mother, 
and stretching out his arms questioned Ananda, and showed 
his feet to Kasyapa ; also where they burnt his body with 
scented wood, and the eight kings divided his bone-relics. 

Again, passing 500 li or so through a great forest, we 
come to the kingdom of P6-lo-ni-sse {Bdndras), 

This kingdom is about 4000 li in circuit. The capital 
borders, on the west, on the river Ganges, it is about ten 
li in length, and five or six li in breadth. 

There are about thirty Sanghar^mas, and 2000 priests 
who study the teaching of the Sarvastivadins, belonging 
to the Little Vehicle. 

Crossing the Po-lo-ni-sse river (Yaran^), and going 
north-east ten li or so, we come to the Sangh^r^ma of 
the '' Stag-desert." The lofty turrets {of the convent) 
mingle with the clouds, and the long galleries unite at 
the four corners of the building. There are about 1500 
priests here, who study the Little Vehicle according to 
the Sammatiya school. 

Within the great court is a vihara 100 feet high; 

^ Becords, ii. 33, n, 91. 


there are stone steps, and brick niches arranged in regular 
order round the storeys of the building, in each niche is a 
gilded figure of Buddha. 

Within the great hall (or house) is a figure of Buddha 
in brass {calamine stone)} of the actual size of Tath^gata's 
body ; he is represented as turning the wheel of the law. 

To the south-east of the Vihara is a stone Stupa, 
erected by A^6ka-r^ja, about 100 feet high ; in front of it 
is a stone column about 70 feet high. This is the place 
where Buddha first began to preach. By the side of it 
is the place where Mei-ta-li {Maitri) Bodhisattva received 
the predictive assurance. 

Again to the west is a Stupa ; this is the place where 
Buddha in former days was born as Prabhlpala Bodhi- 
sattva ^ in the midst of the Bhadra Kalpa, when men lived 
to 20,000 years of age. At this time Ka^yapa being 
Buddha, he received a predictive assurance here. 

To the south of this spot is a place where the four 
Buddhas of the past age walked to and fro. In length 
this terrace is about 500 feet, and in height seven feet. 
It is made of a greenish blue stone and bears on its 
surface the impression of the four Buddhas walking to 
and fro. 

To the west of the Sanghar^ma is the washing tank 
of Tathagata, and where he cleansed his begging dish 
and washed his clothes. These tanks are protected by 
Nagas, so that no one may defile the water. 

By the side of the lake there is a Stupa where Buddha, 
whilst he was practising the preparatory life of a Bodhi- 
sattva in the form of a six-tusked white elephant, gave 
his tusks in charity to a hunter. 

Here also is the place where, when he was born as a 
bird, he joined the company of a monkey and a white 
elephant, and making a covenant as to their age according 
to a Nyagrodha tree, went forth to convert men. 

^ Or, covered with brass plates. Dr. Mitra's Nepalese Buddhist Gaia- 

^ Or, Jyotipdla Bodhisattva. See %Me, p. 121, &c. * ' " 

loo THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book iii. 

Again there is the spot where Buddha was born as a 
deer-king ; and also where he converted Kaundinya and 
the others, altogether five men.-^ 

From this, following the course of the Ganges for about 
300 li eastwards, we arrive at the kingdom of Chen-chu 
(Ghdzipur), From this, going north-east and crossing 
the Ganges, after 140 or i 50 li, we come to the kingdom 
of Vaisali. 

This kingdom is about 5000 li in circuit; the soil is 
loamy and richly watered ; it produces many Amra and 
Mocha fruit-trees. The capital town is waste and in 
ruins ; its old foundations are sixty or seventy li in 
circuit ; the inhabitants are very few in number. 

Five or six li to the north-west of the royal precincts 
is a Sangh^rama, by the side of which is a stupa ; this is 
the place where in old times Buddha recited the Vimala- 
kirtti Sutra. 

Again, three or four li to the north-east of this is a 
stupa ; this is the site of the ruined house of Vimala- 
klrtti ; this house is the scene of many strange spiritual 

Not far from this is a house constructed from piled- 
up stones ; this is the place where Yimalaklrtti, when 
taken with sickness, preached the Law. 

By the side of this is the old dwelling of Eatnakara ^ 
and of the Lady Amradarika. 

Next, about three or four li to the north, there is a 
stupa ; this is where Buddha stopped when about to 
proceed to the kingdom of Ku^inara to attain Nirvana, 
surrounded by Devas and men. 

To the west, again, is the place where Buddha (turned 
round) to behold Vaisali for the very last time. 

1 For the various fables referred to ^ Vide Records, cfcc, vol. ii. p. 67, 
in t'^is section, cf. Records, ii. p. 47 n. 70. 


Again, to the south, is the place where the Lady 
Amrad^rik^ gave the garden in charity to Buddha. 

Again, there is the place where Buddha consented (to 
attain) Nirvana, in accordance with the request of Mara raja. 

Leaving the southern borders of Vaisali and following 
the Ganges river for loo li or so, we came to the town 
of Sv^tapura, where the Master obtained the Sutra called 

Again, going south and crossing the Ganges river, we 
come to the kingdom of Magadha.^ This kingdom is 
about 5000 li^ in circuit. The population is learned and 
highly virtuous. There are about fifty Sangharamas and 
ten thousand priests, mostly attached to the Great Vehicle. 

To the south of the river there is an old town about 
seventy li in circuit. Although it is waste and desolate, 
the parapets of the walls still remain. 

In old days, when men's lives were of immeasurable 
length, then this town was called Kusumapura;^ because 
the king's palace had so many flowers, it was so called. 
Afterwards, when men's lives dwindled down to a few 
thousand years, then it was called Pataliputtra-pura, after 
the Patali tree ^ (the trumpetjlower-tree). 

One hundred years after the Mrvana there was a king 
called Asoka, the great grandson of Bimbisarar^ja ; ^ he 
transferred his court from Eajagriha to this place. Since 
then many generations have passed, and now nothing but 
the old foundations remain, and of several hundred con- 
vents only two or three survive. 

To the north of the old palace (precinct), bordering on 
the river Ganges, is a little town ; this town has about 
1000 houses; to the north of the palace there is a stone 

1 This seems to be parenthetical. berg's translation). According to 

2 Records, Book viii. this work (v. 25 and vi. 99) the great 

3 Julien gives 600 li by nmistake. grandson of Bimbis^ra was Susunaga, 

4 Explained to mean the city of the who, in the first passage, is described 
palace of fragrant flowers. as the father of Asdka, and the latter 

^ For the story of this tree, vide passage spoken of as As6ka (K^lA-soka) 
Records, vol. ii. p. 83. himself. Cf. Records^ ii. 85 and 102, 

6 Of. Dipavarhsa, vi. 15, 18 (Olden- n. 41. 

102 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG, [book lit. 

pillar several tens of feet liigli ; this is the place where 
Asoka made the hell ( place of torture). 

The Master of the Law remained in the little city 
seven days, and paid worship to the sacred traces. 

To the south of the place of torture is a Stupa ; this 
is one of the 84,000 which the king built by the aid 
of human artificers. Within it is a measure of the 
relics of Tathagata, which ever and again exhibit a 
divine brilliancy. 

Again, there is a Yihara in which is a stone on which 
Tathagata walked : on the stone is an impression of the 
feet of Buddha : in length a foot and eight inches, in 
breadth six inches. Under either foot is the sign of the 
looo-spoked wheel, and on each of the ten toes is the 
mark of the swastika, with figures of flowers, vases, 
fishes, &c., all of which sparkle with light. These are 
the traces left on a great square stone -^ upon which 
Buddha stood, when, after leaving Yaisali, he reached this 
spot, being about to attain Nirvana; he was on the 
southern side of the river, and addressed Ananda thus, 
as he stood : " This is the very last time that I shall 
gaze {at a distance) upon the Yajrasana ^ and Eajagriha," 
and the traces of his feet on this stone remained. 

To the north of the Yihara is a stone column about 
thirty feet high ; on this pillar is written a record that 
A^oka-raja three times gave the whole of Jambudvipa in 
charity to Buddha, Dharma and Samgha, and three times 
bought back his inheritance {i.e. his empire) with jewels 
and treasure. 

To the south-east of the old city are the ruins of the 
Kukkutarama ^ convent, which was built by Asoka 

1 This phrase is omitted by Julien, ^ That is, the diamond-seat, on 

but it is an important one, as it which he had reached perfect enlight- 

enables us to identify PI. xxvi. fig. i, enment. 

Tree and Serpent W orship, with this =^ Asok^rama, Dip., vii. 59. 


raja: it was here he convoked the 1000 priests and 
supplied them with the four kinds of religious offerings.-^ 

The Master of the Law paid reverence to all these 
sacred traces, during seven days, visiting them severally. 

Then going south-west six or seven yojanas he came 
to the Tiladaka ^ convent. In this convent were several 
tens of priests of the three pitakas {ix. Buddhist priests), 
who hearing of the arrival of the Master of the Law came 
out in a body to meet and escort him. 

From thisj again, proceeding southwards 1 00 li or so, 
we come to the Bddhi tree. The tree is protected by 
high and very solid brick walls; the wall stretching 
east and west is long, but narrower from north to south. 
The principal gate faces the east looking towards the 
river Ni-len-shan {Nairanjdna). The southern gate 
borders on a great flower-tank. The west a mountain 
side protects. The north gate leads into the great Sang- 
h§.rama. Within this on every side are the sacred traces 
of religion, vih^ras, stupas, and so on, all of which kings 
and great ministers and rich nobles have constructed 
from a principle of reverence, and for the perpetual memory 
{of their religion). 

In the centre of the whole enclosure is the Diamond 
throne, which was perfected at the beginning of the 
Bhadra Kalpa, and rose up from the ground when the 
world was formed. It is the very central point of the 
universe, and goes down to the golden wheel, from whence 
it rises upwards to the earth's surface. It is perfected of 
diamond, and is about 100 paces round. In using the 
w^ord diamond we mean that it is firm and indestructible, 
and able to resist all things.^ If it were not for its sup- 
port the earth could not remain; if the seat were not 
so strong as diamond, then no part of the world could 

1 Vide tlie Dipavansa, vii. 57, 58, Buddhist council held under Dham- 

59. The statement in the Text, m^soka. Cf. Records, ii. p. 95. 

agreeing as it does with the Dlpa- 2 Vide Records, ii. p. 102 n, 

vamsa, evidently refers to the third s d<p6iT0P dei. 


support one who has entered the samadhi of perfect 
fixedness (vajra samddhi). 

And now, whoever desires to conquer Mara, and to 
attain perfect wisdom, must sit here ; if it were assayed 
elsewhere, the earth would overtop itself. Therefore, the 
looo Buddhas of the Bhadra Kalpa have all attained 
their emanicipation here. 

But again, the place of completed wisdom is also 
called the arena of wisdom {Bddhimanda), If the world 
were shaken to its foundations {overturned), this place 
alone would not be moved. 

After one or two hundred years from the present 
time, the merit of the human family becoming less, on 
coming to the B6dhi tree, the Vajr^sana will no longer 
be seen. 

After the Nirvana of Buddha the kings of the different 
countries agreed to define the limits {of this sacred en- 
closure) towards the north and south ■'• from the point 
of the two images of Kwan-tsze-tsai Bodhisattva, which 
are seated looking towards the east. According to tradi- 
tion, when these images of the Bodhisattva become in- 
visible, then the Law of Buddha will perish. The southern 
image has already been swallowed up as far as the breast. 

The Bodhi tree is the same as the Pippala tree (Ficus 

Whilst Buddha was in the world the height of the 
tree was several hundred feet ; but as wicked kings have 
continually cut it down and destroyed it, the tree is now 
only about fifty feet high. As Buddha, whilst sitting 
beneath this tree, reached perfect wisdom (amdtara 
Bodhi), it is therefore called the Bodhi tree. The bark 
is of a yellowish white colour, and its leaves of a shining 
green ; it retains its leaves through the autumn and 
winter ; only, when the day of Buddha's Mrv^na comes, 
the leaves all fall off, but when the day has passed, they 

1 The passage evidently refers to the territories of the kings, as Julien 
the limits of the Bodhimanda, not to translates. 


all grow again. Every year on this day the kings of 
the countries, the ministers and magistrates, assemble 
beneath the tree, and ponr milk on its roots and light 
lamps and scatter flowers, then collecting the leaves, 
they retire.-^ 

The Master of the Law when he came to worship the 
Bodhi tree and the figure of Tathagata at the time of 
his reaching perfect wisdom, made (aftertaards) by (the 
interposition of) Mditreya Bddhisattva,^ gazed on these 
objects with the most sincere devotion, he cast himself 
down with his face to the ground in worship, and with 
much grief and many tears in his self-affliction, he sighed, 
and said : " At the time when Buddha perfected himself 
in wisdom, I know not in what condition I was, in the 
troublous whirl of birth and death; but now, in this 
latter time of image (worship), having come to this spot 
and reflecting on the depth and, weight of the body of 
my evil deeds, I am grieved at heart, and my eyes filled 
with tears." 

At this time there happened to come to the spot, from 
different quarters, a body of priests who had just broken 
up from their religious retreat, numbering several thou- 
sand men ; these persons, when they beheld (? the Master) 
were all moved to pity and sorrow. 

For a yojana around this spot the space is full of 
sacred traces. The Master therefore remained here for 
eight or nine days to pay his worship at each spot 

On the tenth day he went to the Nalanda temple ; 
the congregation there had selected four of their 
number, of distinguished position, to go and meet him ; 
journeying in their company about seven yojanas he 
reached the farm-house^ belonging to the temple. It 
was in (the village^ where) this house (stands), that the 

1 Perhaps this is the reason why it ^ yif^Q Records, vol. ii. p. 120. 
is sometimes called the Pei-to, ■i.e., *^ So I translate chwang, 
"the leaf tree." 

io6 THE LIFE OF HiVEN-TStANG, [book in. 

honourable Maudgalyayana was born. Halting here for 
short refreshment, then, with two hundred priests and 
some thousand lay patrons, who surrounded him as he 
went, recounting his praises, and carrying standards, 
umbrellas, flowers and perfumes, he entered JSTalanda. 

Having arrived there he was joined by the whole 
body of the community, who exchanged friendly greetings 
with the Master, and then placing a special seat by the 
side of the Sthavira (presiding priest), they requested 
the Master to be seated. The others then also sat 

A*fter this the Karmad&na ^ was directed to sound the 
Ghanta and proclaim : '' Whilst the Master of the Law 
dwells in the convent, all the commodities used by the 
priests and all the appliances of religion are for his con- 
venience, in common with the rest." 

Then selecting twenty men of middle age, skilful in 
explaining the religious books and of dignified carriage, 
they deputed them to conduct the Master to the presence 
of Ching-fa-tsong (treasure of the good law). This is the 
same as Silabhadra. 

The congregation, from the excessive respect they have 
to him, do not venture to call him by his name, but give 
him the appellation of Ghing-fa-tsong, 

Whereupon, following the rest, he entered to salute 
this eminent person. Having seen him, then the chief 
almoner presented him (i.e. Silabadra) with all things 
necessary without stint, paying his respects according to 
the proper ceremonial, approaching him on his knees 
and kissing his foot, and bowing his head to the ground. 
The usual greetings and compliments being finished, Fa- 
tsong ordered seats to be brought and spread out, and 

1 111 the original Wei-na, i.e. Vena, the Chinese rendering ^' Chi sse," he 

"the early riser." He is the sub- ivho knoios things, or, business. He 

director of the Convent, Vena, in is, according to Jiilien, also called 

the sense of the rising sun^ or, the Kai^maddna, which appears to be 

early riser, is found in the Rig- Veda, allied to the Chinese hiwj (karma). 

vide Wallis, *' Cosmology of the Rig The P^li equivalent in Bhattudde- 

Veda," p. 35. But Yena has also the sako. 
sense of the "Knower," and hence 


desired the Master of the Law and the rest to be seated. 
When seated he asked the Master of the Law from what 
part he came ; in reply he said : " I am come from the 
country of China, desiring to learn from your instruction 
the principles of the Yoga-Sastra.'* 

Hearing this, he called for his disciple Buddhabhadra, 
whilst tears filled his eyes ; now Buddhabhadra was the 
nephew of Fa-tsong, and upwards of seventy years of 
age, thoroughly versed in the Sutras and S&stras, and 
excellent in discourse. Fa-tsong addressing him said: 
" You may recount for the sake of the company present, 
the history of my sickness and sufferings three years ago." 

Buddhabhadra having heard the request sobbed aloud 
and wept — but then restraining his tears he declared the 
past history and said: ''My master {UpXdhydya) some 
time ago was painfully afflicted with colic. On each 
occasion when the attack came on, his hands and feet 
were cramped with pain, and he would suddenly cry out 
with agony as if he had been burned with fire, or pierced 
with a knife ; the attack would subside as suddenly as 
it came on ; and this went on for twenty years and more. 
But three years ago the severity of his suffering was so 
hard to bear, that he loathed his very life and desired to 
starve himself to death. In the middle of the night he 
had a dream in which he saw three D6vas (heavenly 
men), one of the colour of gold, another of the colour of 
bright crystal, another as white as silver, their appear- 
ance and form commanding, of dignified presence, and 
clad in light shining garments ; approaching the Master 
they asked him, saying: 'Are you anxious to get free 
from this body of yours ? The Scriptures speak, saying, 
the body is born to suffering ; they do not say we should 
hate and cast away the body. You in one of your past 
births were the king of a certain country, and you caused 
much suffering among living creatures, and now you 
have this suffering as your recompense. Search out 
therefore and examine your past faults, and repent of 

log THE LlPn OF mXJEN-TSlANG, [book lit. 

them sincerely ; take your affliction quietly and patiently ; 
labour diligently in explaining the Siitras and S^stras ; 
you will thus get rid of your pain yourself; but if you 
loathe your body, there will be no cessation to your 

" The Master having heard these words, paid his adora- 
tions with the utmost sincerity. 

" Then the golden-coloured one, pointing to the one 
that shone like crystal, said to the Master : ' Dost thou 
know or not that this one is Avalokite^vara B6dhi~ 
sattva ? ' and then pointing to the silver-coloured one he 
added : ' and this is M^itreya B6dhisattva/ 

"The Master immediately paid worship to Maitreya 
and asked him, saying : ' Your servant Silabhadra has 
ever prayed that he may be born in your exalted palace 
courts, but he knows not whether he will gain his wish 
or not.' In reply, he said, * You must widely disseminate 
the true law, and then you shall be born there/ 

" The golden-coloured one said : ' And I am Manju^ri 
Bodhisattva. Seeing that you desired to get rid of 
your life, contrary to your true interest, we are come 
to exhort you to the contrary ; you should rely on our 
words, and exhibit abroad the true law, the Yoga sdstra 
and the rest, for the benefit of those who have not yet 
heard it. Your body will thus by degrees become easy 
and you will suffer no further pain. Do not overlook 
that there is a priest of the country of China who 
delights in examining the great Law and is desirous to 
study with you : you ought to instruct him carefully/ 

*' Fa-tsong having heard these words worshipped and 
answered : ' I shall obey, according to your honourable 
instructions/ Having said this, they disappeared. 

" From that time the sufferings of the Master from his 
disease came to an end." 

The company present hearing this history were all 
lilled with wonder at the miraculous event. 

bookitl] provisions A1 NALANDA, 109 

The Master of the Law having heard lor himself this 
narrative was unable to control his feelings of sympathy 
and joy. He again paid his respects and said : " If it be 
so, as you say, then Hiuen-Tsiang ought with his utmost 
strength to listen to and practise (your religious advice). 
Would that your reverence, of his great compassion, would 
receive me for the purpose of instruction." 

Then Fa-tsong asked him further, "For how many 
years have you been on your journey ? " He answered, 
" During three years ; " and so, as the particulars of his 
directions, received in his dream, were completely fulfilled, 
he caused the Master of the Law to rejoice in their 
relationship as Master and disciple. 

After these words he retired and went to the college 
of E^lMitya-raja and took up his residence in the dwell- 
ing of Buddhabhadra, having four storeys (or, the fourth 
storey)^ who entertained him for seven days. After this 
he went to reside in a dwelling to the north of the 
abode of DbarmapMa B6dhisattva, where he was pro- 
vided with every sort of charitable offering. Each day 
he received 1 20 Jambiras/ 20 Pin-long -tseu (puga, areca 
nut) 20 tau-'Mau (nutmegs)^ an ounce (lael) of Camphor, 
and a ching (peck) of Mah§,^&,li rice. This rice is as 
large as the black bean, and when cooked is aromatic 
and shining, like no other rice at all. It grows only in 
M4gadha, and nowhere else. It is offered only to the 
king or to religious persons of great distinction, and 
hence the name kung-ta-jin-mai {i.e, rice offered to the 
great householder). 

Every month he was presented with three measures of 
oil, and daily a supply of butter and other things accord- 
ing to his need. 

A pure brother (a U'pdsaka) ^ and a Brahman, relieved 

1 A fruit. brother. Of. Fa-Men, cap. iii. Pro- 

, 2 Julien translates tsing jin by bably, however, it had better be 
Braman^ but it evidently means a lay- translated a Brahmachdrt. 

no THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book iii. 

from all religious duties, accompanied him with a riding 

In the IsTManda convent the abbot entertains a myriad 
priests after this fashion, for besides the Master of the 
Law there were men from every quarter ; and where in 
all their wanderings have they met with such courteous 
treatment as this ? 

The Nahmda monastery is the same as the ''charity 
without intermission'' monastery."^ The tradition of the 
old people is this: — To the south of the convent, in the 
middle of an Amra garden, is a pool. In this pool is 
a N^ga called Nalanda, and the convent built by the 
side of the pool is therefore called after his name. Again 
there is a saying that TathS^gata whilst a Bodhisattva 
was the king of a great country and built his capital 
in this place. He was deeply affected towards the 
orphans and destitute, and, ever moved by this principle, 
gave away all he had for their good. In memory of this 
goodness they named the place ''doing charitable acts 
without intermission," 

The place was originally the garden of the lord (Shresh- 
tin) Amra ^ (or, Amura). Five hundred merchants bought 
it for ten lacs of gold pieces, and presented it to Buddha. 
Here Buddha preached the law for three months, and 
most of the merchants obtained the fruit of Arhatship, 
in consequence. 

After the ]SrirvS,na of Buddha an old king^ of this 
country called SakrS,ditya, from a principle of loving 
obedience to Buddha, built this convent. 

After his decease his son Buddhagupta-raja seized the 
throne, and continued the vast undertaking ; he built, 
towards the south, another Sanghar^ma. 

Then his son^ {successor) Tath^gata-raja built a Saiigh^- 
r§.ma to the eastward. 

'^ Records, 167^ n. mean *'his son," but his ^direct 

2 Vide Max Miiller's India, p. 327. descendant. This would reconcile 

s Or, a former Icing, vide p. 112, the two accounts in the Sl-yu-kl and 

infra, n. i. here. Vide Records, ii. 168. 
'* The expression chi-tsz' need not 


IsText, bis son (or, direct descendant) Bi.]S,ditya ^ built a 
Sangh^r^ma to the north-east. Afterwards the king, 
seeing some priests who came from the country of China 
to receive his religious offerings, was filled with gladness, 
and be gave up his royal estate and became a recluse.^ 

His son^ Vajra succeeded and built another Sang- 
har§,ma to the north. 

After him a king of Mid-India built by the side of 
this another Sangh&rlma. 

Thus six kings in connected succession added to these 

Moreover, the whole establishment is surrounded by a 
brick wall, which encloses the entire convent from with- 
out. One gate opens into the great college, from which 
are separated eight other halls, standing in the middle 
{of the Sanghdrdma). The richly adorned towers, and 
the fairy -like turrets, like pointed hill- tops, are congre- 
gated together. The observatories seem to be lost in the 
vapours (of the morning), and the upper rooms tower 
above the clouds. 

From the windows one may see how the winds and 
the clouds {'produce new forms), and above the soaring 
eaves the conjunctions of the sun and moon {may he 

And then we may add how the deep, translucent 
ponds, bear on their surface the blue lotus, intermingled 
with the Kie-ni {Kanaka) ^ flower, of deep red colour, 
and at intervals the Amra groves spread over all, their 

All the outside courts, in which are the priests' 
chambers, are of four stages. The stages have dragon- 
projections and coloured eaves, the pearl-red pillars, 
carved and ornamented, the richly adorned balustrades, 

1 B41adit.ya = the young, or rising Vajra was the son of B6,Mditya, and 

sun. May we comY)are with this this agrees with the Si-yu-ki. 

Pallas (Minerva)? ^ Butea frondosa (M. Williams' Sc. 

'■• B-ecords, vol. ii. 169. Diet. s,v.) 

3 Here the expression denotes that 


and the roofs covered with tiles that reflect the light in 
a thousand shades, these things add to the beauty of the 

The Sangh4r&mas of India are counted by myriads, 
but this is the most remarkable for grandeur and height. 
The priests, belonging to the convent, or strangers 
(residing thei^ein) always reach to the number of 10,000, 
who all study the Great Vehicle, and also {the works 
helonging to) the eighteen sects,-^ and not only so, but even 
ordinary works, such as the Yedas and other books, the 
Hetuvidya, Sabdavidya, the Chikitsavidy^, the works on 
Magic (AtharvavSda), the Sankhya; besides these they 
thoroughly investigate the " miseellaneous " works. There 
are 1000 men who can explain twenty collections of Sutras 
and SS-stras; 500 who can explain thirty collections, and 
perhaps ten men, including the Master of the Law, who 
can explain fifty collections. Silabhadra alone has 
studied and understood the whole number. His eminent 
virtue and advanced age have caused him to be regarded 
as the chief member of the community. Within the 
Temple they arrange every day about 100 pulpits for 
preaching, and the students attend these discourses with- 
out any fail, even for a minute (an inch shadoiv on the 

The priests dwelling here, are, as a body, naturally 
(or, sjpontaneously) dignified and grave, so that during the 
700 years since the foundation of the establishment,'^ 
there has been no single case of guilty rebellion against 
the rules. 

The king of the country respects and honours the 
priests, and has remitted the revenues of about 100 
villages for the endowment of the convent. Two hundred 
householders in these villages, day by day, contribute 

1 That is, the eigiiteeu schools (p''w) years before Hiuen-Tsiang^ we may 
of Buddhism. suppose he lived about the tirst cen- 

2 This seems to throw light on the tury B.C. The expression, therefore, 
date of Sakraditya, if he "after the in the Si-yu-ki, ''not long after" 
Nirvana," was the first to found the {Records, \\. i68), must be taken, ftum 
NMauda Convent, and this was 700 grano, to mean "a good while after." 


several hundred piculs ^ of ordinary rice, and several 
hundred catties^ in weight of butter and milk. Hence 
the students here, being so abundantly supplied, do not 
require to ask for the four requisites.^ This is the 
source of the perfection of their studies, to which they 
have arrived. 

The Master of the Law having resided in the N^landa 
Temple for some time, then proceeded towards E&jagriha 
to examine, and pay reverence to, the holy traces there. 

The old city of E&jagriha is that which is called Kiu- 
she-kie~la-po-lo (KuSdgarapiira). This city is in the 
centre of Magadha, and in old times many rulers and 
kings lived in it. This land, moreover, produces some 
excellent scented grass (KtiM), and hence the name 
given to the city. On the four sides it is entirely shut 
in by lofty and steep mountains, as if they had been cut 
out (like a wall). On the west side the approach is 
through a narrow passage ; but passing in from the north, 
is a large gate. The land is extended from north to 
south, and narrow from east to west: it is about 150 
li in circuit. Within it is another little town, the 
foundation walls being about thirty li round. On every 
side are forests of the Kanaka tree, which flower all the 
year round, the petals being of a golden colour. 

Outside the north face of the royal precinct there is a 
stupa ; this is the spot where Devadatta in conjunction 
with Aj§,tasatru raja let loose the treasuTe-povtecting 
drunken elephant^ wishing to destroy Buddha. 

North-east of this is a stiipa ; this is the spot where 
Sariputra heard the Bhikshu Asvajita explain the Law, 
and in consequence attained the fruit (of Arhatship).^ 

Not far to the north of this is a large and deep ditch ; 

1 I picul = 133I lbs. Buddha, p. 93), or Dhanapala, ac- 
^ I catty = 160 lbs. cording to Spence Hardy {Manual, 

2 Clothes, food, bedding, andmedi- p. 321}. The scene at Ajanta (Speirs' 
cine. Anc. India, p. 290) has been rightly 

4 Called Ratnapala or VasupAla, identified with this episode, 
according to Bockhill {Jpife of the ^ Vide Records, ii. 175. 

114 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book iil 

this is the place where Srlgupta, obeying the words of 
the heretics, desired to destroy Buddha by fire (concealed 
in) the ditch, and by poisoned food/ 

Again, to the north-east of the great ditch, in a corner 
of the mountain city, is a Stupa ; this is the place where 
the great physician, Jlvaka, built a preaching hall for 
Buddha. By the side of it is the old house of Jivaka, 
still visible. 

Going north-east of the palace-city (i.e. Kusdgara'pura) 
fourteen or fifteen 1% we come to the mountain called 
Ki-li-tO'lo-hm-to (Q-riclhrakuta). This mountain is a con- 
nected succession of ridges, the northern peak, rising 
grandly above the rest, stands up boldly by itself, and is 
in shape like a vulture ; it also has the form of a high 
tower ; hence its name {Tower, or Peah of the Vulture), 
The springs are clear, the rocks singular in shape, and 
the trees covered with rich verdure. 

When Tathagata was in the world he used frequently 
to live here, and it was here he declared the Fa-hwa 
(Saddharma pundarika), the Ta-pan-jo (Ifahdprajna), and 
other sutras innumerable. 

Going through the north gate of the mountain city one 
li or so, we come to the bamboo garden of Kalanda, 
where there is still a brick house. 

Here Buddha in old time often dwelt, and here he 
laid down the binding rules of the Vinaya. The owner 
of this garden was called Karanda ; he had before given 
this garden in charity to different heretics, but after he 
had seen Buddha and heard the deep truths of his Law, 
he was sorry that he had not given the garden in charity 
to TathS,gata. The earth-spirit, knowing his thoughts, 
caused such prodigies to appear as frightened the heretics, 
and then, with a view to make them go away, he spake 
as follows : " The lord of the place wishes to give this 
garden in charity to Buddha : you had better begone 

1 This histoiy of Srigupta's plot forms the fifth story in the JAtaka* 


quickly ! *' The heretics, concealing their vexation, went 
away. Then the lord of the place, filled with joy, built 
a Yih^ra, and when he had finished it he went and in- 
voked Buddha to come there and reside; so Buddha 
accepted the place as a gift. 

To the east of the garden is a stupa, which was built 
by Aj^tasatru rslja. After the Mrv^na of TathS-gata 
the different kings received a portion of his relics ; 
Ajata^atru r^ja, having got his share, coming back, built 
a tower for the purpose of paying them religious worship. 
Asoka-r^ja, exciting his heart to religion, desired to build 
in every place sacred edifices, and so he opened this 
tower and took the relics ; but he let a small portion of 
them remain, which, even down to the present time, on 
occasions, emit a brilliant light. 

Going south-west from the Bamboo garden five or 
six li, by the side of a mountain, there is another garden, 
of the same sort, in which is a great house.^ This is 
where the honourable Mah4 Kasyapa with 999 Arhats 
after the Nirvana of Buddha, collected together the 
three Pitakas. 

At the time of the collection there were an innumer- 
able number of holy persons assembled together, like 
clouds. K^yapa addressing them, said : " Among those 
present those may remain who have a personal know- 
ledge of the three vidy4s, and who possess the six 
supernatural powers, and have completely mastered the 
entire treasure of the Law of Buddha, without flaw or 
omission. Of the rest let each return to his place of 

There remained, in consequence, 999 men who were 
Arhats, in the selected place of study. 

On this Kasyapa addressed Ananda : " You have not 
yet got rid of all remains (leaks, i.e. human frailties) ; do 
not soil, by your presence, this pure congregation." 

Ananda, ashamed, retired. During the night, how- 

1 That is, the Sattapanni cave. But refer to Records, ii. p. 156 n. 

ii6 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG, [book hi, 

ever, by diligent application, he snapped the bonds ol 
the three worlds, and became perfect as an Arhat. 

Then returning he came and humbly bowed at tlie 
door of the assembly. 

Ka^yapa then asked him, saying : " Art thou free from 
fetters ? " 

He replied : " Yea ! " 

Then he added : " If it is so indeed, there is no need 
to unfasten the door and open it ; enter in as thou wilt ! " 

Ananda then entered in through a small crevice in 
the door, and saluted the feet of the priesthood. 

Then Kfi^^yapa taking his hand, said : " I was anxious 
that you should get rid of all imperfections, and obtain 
the holy fruit, and so excluded you ; knowing this, you 
should have no grudge in. your heart.'* 

Ananda said : *' If I felt any grudge, how could I be 
said to be free from fetters ? " 

On this he saluted him respectfully and sat down. 

They then kept the first fifteen days of the Eain-Eest. 

Kasyapa addressing Ananda, said : " Tathagata always 
termed you in the congregation a disciple, or listener 
{SSkha)} who thoroughly knew the laws of religion. 
You may therefore now mount the pulpit, and for the 
sake of the assembly recite the Sutra pitaka, which is 
the same as all the Sutras." 

On this Ananda, obeying the mandate, arose, and after 
bowing down towards the mountain of the Parinirv^na 
of Buddha {his grave^ or, the place of his death), he 
mounted the pulpit and repeated the Sutras. The con- 
gregation received them at his dictation and wrote them 
down. Having so recorded them, he {Kdsyajpa) requested 
Upali to recite the Yinaya pitaka, that is, the whole body 
of the Moral Eules. 

This being done, K^yapa himself recited the Abhi- 
dharma pitaka, i.e. the collection {Sutra) of the meaning 
of the S^stras, 

* Lotus, p. 296. 

feooKtii.] BIMBA.^AkA'S DECREE. 117 

During the rest of the three months, having finished 
bhe collection of the three pitakas, and inscribed them 
on leaf of the Peito {the palm leaf)^ they then distributed 
them everywhere for use. 

Then the holy men said one to another, " Our collec- 
tion may well be termed Hhe result of the goodness, or 
kindness of Buddha,' for from this alone (i.e. his goodness) 
proceeds what we now have had the privilege of hearing." 

From the fact of Kasyapa being the president among 
the priests, this collection (or, assemUy) is called that of 
the Sthaviras. 

Twenty li to the west of this place is a Stupa built by 
Asoka-raja; this is the spot where the assembly of the 
Great Congregation {MahdsanghiJms) was held. 

The many thousand priests both of those who had 
reached complete wisdom, and those of inferior condition,^ 
who were not admitted to the assembly of Kasyapa all 
collected here, and said among themselves : " During 
Tathagata's lifetime, we had all one master, but now 
the Lord is dead, they have excluded us by their vote ; 
why should not we also make a collection of the Dharma 
pitaka, in return for the goodness of Buddha ? *' 

So they made another collection of the Siitra-pitaka, 
and the Vinaya-pitaka, and the Abhidharma-pitaka, and 
of the Miscellaueous-pitaka, and the Dh^rani-pitaka, five 
pitakas in all. 

As in this assembly there were both ordinary persons ^ 
and holy men present ; it is called the convocation of the 

North-east of this three or four li we come to the town 
of E^jagriha; the outside walls have been destroyed, 
within the city there are still lofty (buildings), 

1 Sdicha and asaicha, vide Lot. ut ^ This differs from the usual ac- 

supra. count which derives the Mah^saiig- 

'^ Fan fit, '* mixed peox)le.' Of. ika school from the schism at 

the PAli puthujjana. Vai.sall. 

tl8 THE LIFE OP HlUEN-TSIANG. [book iii 

It is about twenty li round, and has one gate. 

Formerly, when Bimbisara raja lived in Kusagarapura, 
the population was large and the houses were closely 
packed. In consequence of this the calamity of lire was 
of frequent occurrence. So a decree was made that in 
whatever house a fire next occurred through negligence, 
that the owner should be expelled and placed in the 
" cold forest." The " cold forest," in that country, means 
the evil place where they cast the dead. 

Shortly afterwards the royal palace suddenly caught 
fire and was destroyed ; the king said : '' I am a ruler 
of men : if I transgress and do not act in agreement 
with the law, I cannot repress the lower orders in 

He then ordered the Prince royal to conduct the 
government during his absence, and he himself went to 
reside in the cemetery. 

At this time the king of Vaisali hearing that Bim- 
bisara was living alone in the desert beyond the city, 
was anxious to summon his troops and to capture him. 
The outpost guards, finding this out, informed the king, 
and fortified the place where he was. And because the 
king first dwelt here, they therefore called the place 
Eajagriha."^ This is the new city. Afterwards the King 
Ajatasatru established his authority here in succession to 
his father — and it remained so, till A46ka-r&ja removed 
the capital to Pataliputra and gave the old town to the 
Brahmans : so now in the city, there are only about 
I ooo families of Brahmans. 

Within the palace- city towards the south-west corner 
there is a Stiipa : this is the site of the ruinous house of 
Jyotishka, the nobleman.^ By the side of it is the 
place where E^hula was received as a disciple. 

To the north-west of the Nalanda convent there is a 

1 *' The house of the king.'* ^ Chang-che. 


great ViMra in height about 200 feet, which was built 
by Bal^ditya raja. It is highly decorated and of an 
imposing character. In it there is an image of Buddha 
the same as the image under the Bodhi Tree. 

To the north-east of the VihS^ra is a Stupa, the site 
where Buddha formerly preached the law for seven days. 

To the north-west again is a place where the four 
past Buddhas sat down. 

To the south of this is the brass-covered Vih^ra con- 
structed by SilMitya raja; the work, though not yet 
finished, is sufficiently advanced to show that its plan 
denotes a height of 100 feet and more, when completed. 

Again to the east about 200 paces is a copper image 
of Buddha about eighty feet high, housed over by a 
pavilion in six stages. This was the work of Purnavarma- 
raja in old days.^ 

Again going eastward several li there is a stupa which 
denotes the place where Bimbisara-raja, with many 
myriads of people, went to meet and first saw Buddha, 
who having arrived at supreme wisdom, was directing his 
way towards the city of Eajagriha. 

Again going east thirty li or so we come to the Indra- 
^ilaguha Mountain. 

In front of a Sanghar^ma on the eastern cliffs is a 
stupa called Hariisa. 

Formerly this Sangh&,rama was given to the doctrine 
of the Little Vehicle called the ** gradual stage," which 
permits the use of the three pure condiments. On one 
occasion the steward of the establishment, not having 
been able to procure the necessary provisions, was standing 
by the side in great distress, seeing no mode of escape 
(at a loss what to do), when he beheld a flock of wild 
geese flying past ; then he cried out in jest — " To-day 
the priests are in dire want, my good masters ! recognise 
the opportunity ! " Having spoken these words, the 

1 Vide Becords, ii. 174. 


leading goose, on the sound of the appeal, turned and 
fell down from the clouds on high, and lay his body 
prostrate. The Bhikshu having seen (this miracle), 
filled with astonishment and fear, spread the news abroad 
among the fraternity. The priests had nothing to say 
in reply, on hearing the news ; but filled with reverential 
fear, with many sighs and tears, they talked together 
and said : '' This is a Bodhisattva ! What man among us 
would dare to taste the flesh ? " When Tatbagata estab- 
lished his "gradual method'' of instruction, he forbade us 
to suppose that these early words of his, were intended 
to be final ; ^ he warned us against foolishly supposing 
there could be no change, and hence this admonition ! 

From that time and afterwards they adopted the 
method of the Great Vehicle, and used no more the three 
pure aliments. 

Then they built a " spiritual tower,'' for the burial of 
the dead goose, and signified thereby for the good of 
posterity, their mind in so doing. Such was the origin 
of this tower. 

Thus the Master of the Law having visited the sacred 
traces all round, and paid his reverence to them, returned 
to the N41anda Monastery, and requested Sllabhadra, 
Master of the Law, to explain the Yoga-^astra, in the 
presence of many thousand auditors. 

The exposition being ended, after a little time there 
was a Brahman who uttered some piteous cries outside 
the assembly, and then in turn began to laugh. 

Some messengers asked him why he acted so. 

In reply he said : " I am a man of Eastern India ; 
formerly I made a vow {prayer), in the place where the 
image of Avalokitesvara stands on the Potaraka Mountain, 
that I might become a king. 

" Bodhisattva then appeared for my sake and reproved 

^ This amounts to a declaration of belief in the principle of "religious 


me, saying : ' Make not such a prayer as this : hereafter, 
in such a year and month and day, the Master of the 
Law, Sllabhadra, for the sake of a priest of China, will 
explain the Yoga-sastra ; you should go there and 
listen ! from hearing this discourse you will hereafter be 
able to see Buddha : what good then in being a king ? ' 

" And now,'' he said, '' I have seen the priest of China 
come, and the Master for his sake expounding the law, 
in agreement with the old prophecy, and this is why I 
weep and laugh." 

On this account the Master of the Law, Sllabhadra, 
requested him to remain there and listen to the expla- 
nation of the Sutras for fifteen months : and after the 
lectures, he sent a man with the Brahman to Siladitya 
raja, who allotted him the revenues of three villages for 
his sustenance. 

The Master of the Law whilst he stopped in the 
convent, heard the explanation of the Y6ga-sS,stra, three 
times : the ]SryayS.-Anus^ra-s§.stra, once ; the Hin-liiang- 
Hci-fd-ming, once ; the Hetuvidya-sastra and the Sabda- 
vidya and the tsah Hang s^stras, twice ; the Pranyamilla 
sastra-tlk^, and the Sata-^^stra, thrice. The Kosha, 
Vibhasha, and the Shatpad&bhidharma ^^.stras, he had 
already heard explained in the different parts of Kasmir ; 
but when he came to this convent he wished to study 
them again to satisfy some doubts he had : this done, he 
also devoted himself to the study of the Brahman books 
and the work called Vy^karana on Indian letters, whose 
origin is from the most remote date, and whose author 
is unknown. 

At the beginning of each Kalpa, Brahma -raj a first 
declares it, and then transmits it for Devas and men 
to use. Being thus declared by Brahma-raja, therefore 
men call it Fan, or Brahma, writing. The words of this 
book are very extensive, comprising a hundred myriad 
^lokas. It is the same as the old commentary calls the 
Vyakara(7ia)-sastra. But this pronunciation is not com- 

122 THE LIFE OP HIUEN-TSIANG, [book lit 

plete, if correct it would be Vyakaranam, which is another 
name for "a treatise relating to the record of the science 
of sounds." It treats at large, in a mnemonic way, on 
all the laws of language and illustrates them, hence the 

At the beginning of the Kalpa of perfection (vaivarta 
kalpa) Brahma-r^ja first declared this book ; it then 
comprised i oo myriad of ^lokas ; afterwards, at the 
beginning of the Vaivarta-siddha-Kal'pa, that is, the 
kalpa, or period, of establishment, Ti-shih {^akra-raja) 
reduced them to ten myriad slokas. After this a Brahman 
of the town Salatura in Gandhara of North India, whose 
name was Panini Rishi, reduced them to 8000 slokas. 
This is the work at present used in India. 

Lately a Brahman of South India, at the request of a 
king of South India, reduced them further to 2500 slokas. 
This work is widely spread, and used throughout all the 
frontier provinces, but the well-read scholars of India do 
not follow it as their guide in practice. 

This then is the fundamental treatise relating to sounds 
and letters of the Western world, their branch-divisions, 
distinctions and mutual connections. 

Again, there is a Yyakaranam work {mnemonic treatise) 
of a short kind having 1 000 slokas; again, there is one 
of 300 slokas on the roots (bases) of letters {i,e. letter 
roots or hases) ; again, there are {treatises 071 the) two 
separate kinds of letter-groupings, one named Mandaka 
in 3000 Slokas, the other called Unadi in 2500 slokas. 
These distinguish letter -groupings from letter -roots. 
Again, there is the treatise called Ashta-dhatu {DMtu 
vritti ?) in 800 sl6kas ; in this work there is a brief 
conjunction of letter-bases and letter-groupings. These 
are all the Vyakarana treatises. 

In distinguishing active and passive expositions {i.e. 
in expounding the principles of grammar, relating to 
active and passive verbs) there are these two rules : the 
first, called Ti-yen-to-shing {Tinanta-vdjyam) having 


eighteen intiections ; the second Su-man-to-shing {Suhanta 
'cdjyam)^ having twenty- four inflections ; the Tinanta 
" sounds " are used in elegant compositions, but seldom in 
light literature. The twenty-four " sounds " are used in 
all kinds of composition alike. The eighteen inflections 
of the Tinanta ** sounds" are of two characters: ist, 
Parasmai, 2ncl, Atmane; each of these has nine inflections, 
and so together there are eighteen. With respect to the 
nine which come first : we know that in ordinary dis- 
course everything has three ways of being viewed, (^.e. 
as one thing, or tivo things, or many things) ; every other 
person has three ways of being considered (i.e, as one 
other, tivo other, or n^any other), and also " oneself " can be 
considered in three ways {i.e, as I myself, two of us, or 
many of us). Thus every single thing may be regarded 
in these three ways, as one, two of a class, or many ; 
here then are three (three persons and three numbers, 
altogether nine). In both (voices) the root- word is the 
same, but the (final) sounds are different. So there are 
two sets of nine. 

IsTow, taking the Parasmai sounds : we may speak of a 
thing as existing or not existing, in all cases. Supposing 
then we says a thing exists, there are three ways of put- 
ting (naming) this fact ; we may say " it exists " (bhavati) 
or, ''two things exist" (hhavapa)^ or, "they exist" 
(hhavanti). And so, speaking of another, we may say 
" thou dost exist " (bhavasi), or, *' you two exist " (bhavapa, 
for, bhavathah), or, " you all exist " (bhavatha) ; and so 
again speaking of oneself we may say '' I exist " (bhavdmi), 
or, " w^e two exist " (bhavdvah), or, we all exist (bhavdmas). 

With regard to the nine case-endings of the Atmane 
class, they simply take underneath the nine inflections 
just named the word " vyati," (or, the words ve, ya, 
ti) ; in other respects they are the same as the above.^ 

1 For, Bhavutah. four Vedas {Veda sdsiras) tlie form 

2 This passage is omitted by Julien. hhavamah is used, but elsewhere the 
lie gives, however, a note found in form is hhavamas. 

the original, which states that iu the 

124 THE LIFE OP HtUEN-TStANG. [book iit 

Thus touching these things, we see how a skilful 
writer in this language is saved from ambiguity, and also 
how his meaning may be expressed in the most elegant 

With respect to the twenty-four inflections of the 
Subanta "sound (endings)," it is to be observed that 
every word has altogether eight inflections (cases), and 
that each of these cases or inflections is subject to three 
conditions as to number, viz., when one, or two, or many, 
are concerned. Hence arise the twenty-four {sound- 
endings). Then, again, in connection with these twenty- 
four inflections we have three other terms, viz., the 
masculine sound ending, the feminine, and the neuter. 
But regarding the eight inflections, the first exhibits the 
substance, or basis, of the. thing conceived (nominative); 
the second exhibits the deed done (ohjective) ; the third, 
the means by which, and the doer {insti^umental) ; the 
fourth, for whom the thing is done (dative) ; the fifth, 
what causes the thing (ablative) ; the sixth, wdiose is the 
thing {genitive) ; the seventh, that which determines 
{localises) the thing (locative) ; the eighth, the calling, 
or summoning, the thing (vocative). Now, for example, 
let us take the masculine ending, as in the word "man," 
and go through the eight cases named above. 

The word " man " in Indian speech is Purusha. The 
root-word has three inflections, viz., Purushah, Purushau, 
Purush&s. The thing done (object) has three, Purusham, 
Purushau, Purushan; the instrument by which the 
thing is done by the doer has also three inflections — 
PuTUsMna, Puru{shsb)bhydm, Purushdbhih or Ptirushais; 
" for whom the thing is done,'' Ptiricshdya, Purushdhhydnij 
PurushsMshu ; ''the cause from which the thing pro- 
ceeds," Puribshdt^ Pwrushdhhydm^ Purusheshu ; '' whose is 
the thing" Ptorushasya, Purushdbhyam, Puriishdndm ; ''the 
place where," PnrusM, Pnrnshayds, Purushdndm ; " the 
calling case," Hi Purusha, Hi Pttncshaio, Hi Puritshdh, 


From these one or two examples, other cases may be 
understood ; it would be difficult to make a full statement 
of particulars. 

The Master of the Law thoroughly investigated the 
language (words and jphrases), and by talking with those 
men on the subject of the " pure writings," he advanced 
excellently in his knowledge. Thus he penetrated, and 
examined completely, all the collection (of Buddhist 
hooJcs), and also studied the sacred books of the Brahmans 
during five years. 

Prom this place he again went to the country of 
Hiranyaparvata ; by the way he came to the Ka-po-tih ^ 
Sanghar&ma (the Kapdtika convent). Two or three li to 
the south of this is a solitary hill, its steep and rugged 
sides and lofty peaks, its bushy trees and luxuriant 
verdure, its fountains of pure and clear water, and its 
shining flowers exhaling their perfume, have made this 
spot much renowned ; it is covered with sacred buildings, 
all of which exhibit many and various spiritual prodigies. 

In the middle of an open space is a Vih^ra in which 
is a sandal-wood figure of the Bodhisattva Aval okite^ vara ; 
its appearance is divine and truly worshipful There are 
many tens of men who for seven or fourteen days 
continue without food or drink, putting up their prayers 
and entreaties (in the presence of this flgtire). Those 
whose minds are most sincere, forthwith behold the 
Bddhisattva with all its characteristic marks, glorious 
and respleudent, come forth from the sandal- wood 
figure, and graciously speak with those men concerning 
the subject of their prayers. There are very many 
men who have thus beheld the Bodhisattva, and on this 
account the worshippers have increased in number. 

The persons (congregation) that minister in religious 

126 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book in. 

matters at this shrine, fearing that the crowds who 
come to worship might pollute the sacred figure, have 
erected all round it, at a distance of seven paces, a 
strong wooden balustrade pointed with iron, so that all 
who come to worship must stand outside the rails. 
Not being able to come nearer to the image, they cast from 
the distance the flowers which they bring as offerings; 
those who succeed in making the flowers rest on the 
hands of the figure, or hang from its arms, are considered 
very lucky, and will get their prayers answered. The 
Master of the Law wishing to go to put up his request, 
bought every kind of flower, and stringing them into 
garlands, he went to the place of the image. Having in 
the greatest sincerity paid his worship and offered his 
praises — he fell down on his hands and knees towards 
the image and put up these three vows : — 

1st. Would that I, having finished my studies, may return 
in peace and quiet to my own country without accident : if 
so, may the flowers alight on the hands of the venerable one! 

2nd. Would that, in return for the merit and wisdom I 
am aiming to acquire, I may be born in the Tu^ita 
courts, and be permitted there to worship Maitreya 
BSdhisattva : if so, may the flowers hang on both the arms 
of the venerable one 1 

3rd. The holy writings say that there is a portion of 
creatures born in the world, who are without " the nature 
of Buddha " Hiuen-Tsiang in his ignorance knows not 
what is his case. But if he has the nature of Buddha, 
and so by preparatory conduct may at last reach per- 
fection as a Buddha, then let the flowers hang suspended 
from the neck of the venerable one ! 

Having thus spoken he flung the garlands from the 
distance, and they each alighted according to his vow. 

Having thus accomplished what he sought, he was 
overpowered with joy, and those who were worshipping 
by his side, and the guardians of the Yihara, having seen 
what had occurred, clapped their hands and stamped 


their feet, as they said : " It is a miracle ! hereafter, if 
you arrive at Perfect Wisdom, remember the history of 
this day, and first come to save us." 

Going on gradually from this spot he came to the 
country of Hiranya. There are ten monasteries and 
about 4000 priests in this kingdom ; the priests mostly 
study the Little Vehicle, and belong to the school of 
the Sarv^stivS^dins. 

Eecently there was a frontier king who deposed the 
ruler of this country, and bestowed the capital on the 
priests ; in it, moreover, he built two convents, each con- 
taining 1000 priests. There are two eminent brothers 
here, one called Tathagatagupta, the other KshS^ntisimha, 
both belonging to the Sarvastiv^din school. Here the 
Master stopped one year and read the Vibhash^ and the 
iSTy&ya-anusara, SS-stras, and others. 

To the south of the capital is a Stupa ; here Buddha 
in old days preached for three months for the good of 
Devas and men. By the side of it are traces where the 
past Buddhas walked to and fro. On the western 
borders of this country, south of the river Ganges, is a 
little solitary hill. Here Buddha in old days rested in 
retreat for three months, and subdued the Yaksha 

South-east of the hill, under a steep precipice, is a 
great rock, on which are traces of Buddha as he sat on it. 
They are deep in the rock an inch or more, in length S 
feet 2 inches, in breadth 4 feet i inch. 

There is also a depression in the rock of about an inch 
where Buddha placed his water-jar. It resembles the 
eight petals of a flower. 

To the south of this country all is waste and forest. 
There are great elephants there,- large in size and of 
great height. 

128 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG, [book iv. 


Beginning at Ghampd and ending with an Account of the 
Invitation of the King of KdmarHpa. 

Feom this place, following the southern bank of the 
Ganges in an eastward direction 300 li or so, we come 
to the kingdom of Champgi. There are here some ten 
Sangharamas, with about 300 priests, who study {prac- 
tise) the Little Vehicle. 

The city walls are of brick, and several chang in 
height. The ditch round the town is deep and large, 
so that the place is exceedingly strong. 

Formerly, at the beginning of the kalpa, men dwelt 
in caves. Afterwards, a divine maiden comiiig down, 
as she walked beside the Ganges, bathed herself therein. 
The divine influence of the river affecting her person, 
she bore four sons, between whom she divided the whole 
of Jambudvipa. They then traced out the limits of 
their territory and built cities. This was the capital 
city of one of the sons. 

Many tens of yojanas from the southern frontiers 
of this country, there are great mountain forests, thick 
and wild, embracing a space of 200 li and more. Here 
are many hundred wild elephants who roam in herds. 
Hence the elephant army of Hiranya and Champ^ is 
very numerous. Every now and again they send ele- 
phant masters to go round and catch them. In these 
countries they keep them for drawing carriages- (or, 
riding). Wolves, the rhinoceros, and black leopards ^ are 
abundant, so men dare not go there. 

1 Such "black leopards" threat- Gridrak{ita hill, near Rfijagriha. Fd- 
ened Fa-hien on ]iis ascent of the hien indeed calls thetn Uons^ but \yf: 


There is a tradition here of the following kind. For- 
merly, before Buddha came into the world, there was 
a certain cowherd tending several hundred heads of 
cattle. As he drove them, they came into this forest, 
when a certain ox strayed from the herd by itself alone, 
and was thus continually away in some unknown place. 

Towards evening its custom was to return, and on 
joining the herd it seemed to be of a radiant colour, 
very remarkable for its beauty, and its bellowings were 
different from all the others. The rest of the herd 
always seemed to be afraid of it, and would not venture 
to come near it. This happened for several days. The 
cowherd, astonished at the circumstance, set a private 
watch, and at the moment when the ox departed on 
its wander, he followed and watched it. Then he saw 
it enter a stone door (or, a hole in a rock). The 
man also followed him and entered. After going on 
about four or five li along a valley, suddenly there 
was a great light, and a forest park appeared, sparkling 
with brilliancy ; the flowers were numerous and varied ; 
the blossoms and fruit were all shining like flame, 
dazzling the eye, and contrary to anything in ordinary 

He now saw the ox at a certain place browsing on 
a herb. The herb was of a yellow colour, and highly 
scented, and such as the man had never seen in the 
world. The fruit on the trees were yellow and red, 
like gold ; aromatic, and very large. He plucked one 
of them, but although his heart had coveted its posses- 
sion, he had not courage to taste it. After a little 
while the ox went out, and the man also followed. 
Scarcely had he got out of the hole in the rock, when 
in the very passage an evil demon snatched away the 
fruit and kept it. On this the cowherd consulted a 

all know the ChiDese idea of "a or *' black lion," referred to by Ohil- 
lion *' — to which indeed Sung-Yun ders sub. v. stho. 
refers ; tliere is, however, a siha-kdla, 



great doctorj and described to him the shape of the 
fruit. The doctor said : '' You must not eat it at once, 
but by the use of some stratagem, having taken one, 
manage to get out, and bring it to me." 

On the second day, again following the ox, he entered, 
and forthwith plucked one of the fruit, and concealing it 
in his bosom, proceeded to return. The demon again 
met him, to take the fruit away. The man then took 
the fruit and put it in his mouth. The demon forthwith 
seized him by the throat; but the man managed to 
swallow the fruit. Directly it had entered his inside, 
his whole body began to swell enormously. His head 
indeed was outside the entrance, but the rest of his 
body was still within the cavern, so that he could not 
drag it through the hole. 

After this his relations began to search for him, and 
at length, seeing him thus changed in form, they were 
very much frightened. But on going to him, he was still 
able to speak a few words about his misfortune. The 
friends then returned, and bringing a number of other 
persons with them, they tried by force of main strength 
to get him out from where he was fixed. But they were 
not able to move him. 

The king of the country hearing of the circumstance, 
himself went to see the man; and fearing some future 
calamity, he sent some persons to dig him out ; but even 
so they could not move him. 

Months and years having elapsed, the man was 
gradually changed into stone, but he still kept his 
human form. 

After this, again, there was a king knowing that it 
was a fairy fruit that caused the change, addressed 
his ministers and said : " That man's body was changed 
by virtue of a medicinal herb, then his body must partake 
of this medicinal quality; and although apparently he 
is only a stone, nevertheless his substance must contain 
in it something spiritual and divine. You must send men 


with axes and chisels to separate some few fragments 
from the rock and then bring them to me." 

The ministers in obedience to the king's orders de- 
spatched master workmen to the place and themselves 
accompanied them. During ten days they worked with 
chisels and axes, but were not able to get so much as a 
fragment of the rock. It is still visible. 

From this, going eastward 400 li or so, we come to 
the kingdom of Ki-shu-ho~Me-lo (Kajughira). Here also 
he examined and reverenced the sacred traces. There are 
six or seven SanghS-ramas with about 300 priests. 

Going east from this and crossing the Ganges, after 
about 600 li we come to Pu-na-fa-tan-na (Pundra- 
vardhana). Here again he paid reverence to the sacred 
traces. There are about twelve Sangh^r&,mas here and 
3000 priests, belonging to the Small and Great Vehicle. 

Twenty li or so to the west of the capital is the Po-chi- 
slia^ Sangb^rS^ma. The towers and balconies are lofty 
and grand. There are about 700 priests. By the side 
of it is a stupa, built by A^oka-rSja. Here Tath^tgata 
formerly dwelt for three months preaching the Law. The 
stupa frequently emits a shining light, moreover there are 
traces where the four past Buddhas walked up and down. 

By the side of it there is a Vibi^ra, in which is a 
figure of Avalokite^vara Bodhisattva. Whoever prays 
here with perfect sincerity, is always answered. 

Going south-east from this 900 li or so, we come to 
the country of Kie-lo-na-su-fa-la-na (Karnasuvarna). 

There are about ten SanghS,rS,mas here and 300 priests ; 
they study the Little Vehicle belonging to the Sammattya 

Besides these there are two Sangh^ramas where they 
do not use either butter or milk — this is the traditional 
teaching of Devadatta.^ 

By the side of the capital is the Sangh^r^ma called 

1 For po-chi'po, vide Records, ii. 195, n, 23. 

2 Vide Records, ii. 201, n, 39, 


Ki-to-mo-clii (red mud : the Si-yu-ki gives Lo-to-ioei-cM, 
Kaktaviti). In old days before this country had heard 
of the law of Buddha, then a Shaman of South India 
in his wanderings came here, and having overcome in 
argument a heretic who wore round his person some 
copper sheets, on that account the king of the country 
established this convent/ 

By the side of it is a stupa built by A^dka-raja : here 
Buddha in old times preached for seven days. 

Going from this south-east we come to the country 
of Samatata, whose frontiers border on the great sea. 
The climate is in consequence soft and agreeable. There 
are about twenty Sangh^rS-mas here, with 3000 priests. 
They affect the teaching of the Sthavira^ school. The 
heretics also who worship the spirits of heaven are 

Going not far out of the city is a stupa built by 
A^6ka-r&.ja ; this is the place where in old times Buddha 
preached the law in favour of Devas and men for seven 

Again going from this a short distance is a Sangh^rama 
in which is a green-jade figure of Buddha, about eight 
feet high ; its characteristic marks are beautiful and im- 
posing. It exhales constantly of itself a delicious per- 
fume, which fills the temple court like that of opening 
flowers wafted from far. From time to time it emits a 
heaven-like shining light of the five different colours. 
Every one seeing or hearing of this wonder, is deeply 
affected in his religious consciousness. 

Going from this north-east along the borders of the 
sea, across mountains and valleys we come to the country 
of Chi-li-f sa-ta-lo (Srikshetra) ; still going south-east, in 
a bay of the sea, is the country of Kamalanka (Pegu) ; 
east of this is the country of Dvitrapati (Sandoway) ; 
east of this is the country of Isanapura ; east of this is 

1 Records^ ii. p. 202. 2 j^^ot, as Julien says, the Sarvdstivddas. 


the country of Mah4champa (Siam : also called Lin-I) ; 
west of this is the country of Yen-mo-lo ( Yamardja ; but 
probably a mistake for Yen-mo-na-chau^ the country 
of the Yavanas).^ These sixy kingdoms are bordered 
by mountains and the deep ' sea. Although Hiuen- 
Tsiang did not enter their territory, he was yet able 
to gain knowledge of the customs and manners (of the 

Going from this country of Samatata in a westerly 
direction about 900 li, we come to the kingdom- of 
Tamralipti, which lies along a bay of the sea. There 
are some ten SangMr^mas here, and a congregation of 
about 1000 priests. 

By the side of the city is a Stiipa, about 200 feet 
high, which was built by A^oka-r^ja ; by the side of it 
are traces where the four past Buddhas walked to and 

At this time the Master heard that in the middle of 
the ocean there was a country called Simhala ; ^ it was 
distinguished for its learned doctors belonging to the 
Sthavira school, and also for those able to explain the 

After a voyage of 700 yojanas, it was possible to 
reach that country. 

On hearing about this he inquired of a priest of South 
India, who, in consultation, told him, as follows : " Those 
who go to the Siiiihala country ought not to go by the 
sea route, during which they will have to encounter the 
dangers of bad. weather (winds), the Yakshas, and rolling 
waves ; you ought rather to go from the south-east 
point of South India, from which it is a three days' 
voyage. For although in travelling you may have to 
scale mountains and pass through valleys, yet you are 
safe. Moreover, you will thus be able to visit Orissa 
and other countries, and observe the sacred traces. 

1 Vide Records, <fcc., ii. p. 200. 2 ^he lion-iaking country, — Oh. Ed, 


The Master of the Law immediately set out in a south- 
westerly direction towards Orissa (Uda).^ There are here 
about lOO Sangharamasj and 10,000 priests or so. 
They study the Great Vehicle. Moreover, there are 
heretics who worship the powers of heaven, living in 
mixed society with the others. There are about ten 
Stupas, all of which were built by Asoka ; they exhibit 
spiritual indications. 

The south-eastern frontiers of the country border on 
the great sea. There is a town called Ghi-li-ta-lo 
(Charitra). This is a rendezvous for merchants who 
embark on the sea, and for others from distant places 
who travel here and there. 

At a distance of 20,000 li south,^ is the country of 
Siiiihala. Every night when the sky is clear and without 
clouds, can be seen at a great distance the glittering rays 
of the precious gem placed on the top of the Stupa of 
the tooth of Buddha; its appearance is like that of a 
shining star in the midst of space. 

From this, going south-west and passing through a 
vast forest about 1 200 1% we come to the country of 
Kong-ii-t'o (Konyodha, Ganjam ?). 

From this, going south-west 1400 or 1500 li through 
a wild forest, we come to the Kie-Ung-kia country 
(Kalinga). There are about ten Sangharamas here, 
occupied by some 500 priests, who study the Law 
according to the.Sthavira school. Formerly the popula- 
tion of this country was very dense, but on account of 
some trouble with a Rishi possessed of the five super- 
natural powers, who being angry, imprecated ruin and 
destruction on the kingdom, the population, young and 
old, perished ; afterwards, people from other places 
gradually migrated here, but even now the population 
is sparse. 

Going north-west from this about 1800 li, we come 
to Southern Kosala. The king is of the Kshattriya 

1 Or, Udra : vide Records, ii. 204. 2 Julien gives 2000. 


caste. He deeply reverences the law of Buddha, and 
is well affected towards learning and the arts. There 
are 100 Sanghar4mas here, and 10,000 priests. There 
are a great number of heretics who live intermixed with 
the population, and also Deva temples. 

Not far to the south is an old Sangh&,r^ma. By the 
side of it is a Stupa built by A^6ka raja. In old days 
Tath^gata exhibited great spiritual changes in this place 
and overcame the heretics. Afterwards N^g^rjuna Bodhi- 
sattva dwelt here. At that time the king of the country 
was named Sadv&,ha So4o-p'o-ho ; he highly esteemed 
]Sr&;g^rjuna, and abundantly supplied all his wants. 

At this time Deva Bodhisattva came from the country 
of Siiiihala to seek to discuss on some {religious) diffi- 
culties. Coming to the door he requested permission to 
pass through. The gate-keeper announced him ; on this 
Nag^rjuna, knowing his name of old, filled a dish full of 
water and told a disciple to take it and show it to him. 

Deva seeing the water, without speaking, cast a needle 
into it. The disciple then brought it back. 

IST&g^rjuna having seen it was full of joy and said : 
"This water so bright and full is the symbol of my 
character (qualities). That man who has come and 
thrown a needle into it, has done so to show that he can 
investigate these to the bottom : if such be the man, I 
can discuss with him on the dark and mysterious 
doctrines of religion, and he may hand down the light 
(lamp)," He immediately caused him to be brought in, 
and having seated him, they entered on mutual con- 
versation, as pleasant and agreeable, as the fish finds the 
water to be. Then Nagarjuna said : " I am now old and 
worn out ; does the pure, shining orb of Wisdom reside 
with you (i.e. are you able to succeed me as Teacher) ? " 

Deva, rising and reverently bowing at the foot of 
ISTagarjuna, said: "Although your servant is of small 
ability yet he will venture to hand down your loving 


In this country there was a Brahman who was skilled 
in explaining the treatise called In-ming ; the Master of 
the Law remained here a month and some days and read 
(with him ?) the Tsah-liang-lun. 

From this, tending southwards, he passed through a 
great forest, and going some 900 li south-east, he came 
to the kingdom of Andhra. 

By the side of the capital is a large Sangheir^ma with 
richly ornamented beams, extensive courts, and its whole 
appearance venerable and majestic. Before it is a stone 
stupa several hundred feet high which was constructed 
by the Arhat Achala. 

South-west of the Sangharama, about twenty 1% is an 
isolated hill on the top of which is a stone stupa ; here 
the Bodhisattva Ch'in-na (Jina ? or was his name Yuvana 
jana f) composed the Sastra In-ming (HetuvidyS, ?). 

Going about 1000 li to the south of this we come to 
the kingdom of Dhanakataka. To the east of the capital 
resting against a mountain is a Sangharama called 
Purva^ila. To the west of the capital resting against 
a mountain is a Sangh§;rama called Avara^ila.-^ A former 
king of this country founded these for Buddha's sake ; 
he thoroughly investigated the rules and patterns of Ta- 
hia^ (for constructing such huildings). The woods and 
fountains, flourishiug and charming, the spirits of heaven 
defending and protecting, caused both wise men and holy 
men, to reside here. In the middle of the 1000 years 
after Buddha's ISTirv&na, there were ever laymen and clerics 
coming here together to keep their religious rest. The 

1 I can only surmise that the ex- ^ Ta-Hia is constantly used by 

pression" resting against a mountain" Taou-Siin as equivalent to North 

means, that the Sangharama was India, or, that part of North-west 

hewn out of the mountain side : but India, conquered by the Yue-ti. 

vide Records, <fec., ii. 221 and notes. Mr. Kingsmill restores Ta-hia to 

Withrespectto the terms P'^r'ya.s'i/tt Tocharia ; which maybe correct, but 

and J.-yaras'iM, as denoting two minor is vague. I believe the reference to 

schools of the Mah^saiiighika sect, the text is to the Stdpas erected in 

videmy Travels of Buddhist Pilgrims, North -Wesfc India, by the Indo- 

p. 143, n. Scythians (so called). 


season of rest being past, all who were Arhats would 
mount into space and depart. After the' 1000 years, 
both laymen and holy men lived together here, but for 
1 00 years or so the Mountain Spirit changing itself {into 
various shapes) has caused great annoyance, and the 
religious people (those practising religion) have all been 
so alarmed that they no longer come or go. Hence the 
place is now entirely waste and desert, without either 
priest or novice, 

'Not far to the south of the capital is a great stone 
mountain; this is where the Master of S^stras Bh^vavi- 
veka rests in the palace of the Asuras awaiting the time 
when Maitreya Bodhisattva shall reach perfect wisdom, 
and shall then explain some difi&culties in his way. 

The Master of the Law, whilst in this country, met 
with two priests, the first named Subhuti, the second 
Surya : both of them eminent for explaining the Tripitaka 
according to the Mahasanghika school. 

The Master of the Law on this account remained tliere 
several months studying the Mulfi,bhidharma and other 
sastras, according to the MahS^sanghika school.-^ They 
also studied the various ^^stras of the Great Vehicle 
under the direction of the Master of the Law. And so 
becoming bound together in mind they all went in company 
to pay reverence to the sacred traces of their religion. 

Going from this about 1000 li to the south we come 
to the kingdom of Chulya. 

South-east of the capital is a stiipa built by A^6ka 
r^ja. This is the spot where in old days Buddha, when 
in this district, exhibited great spiritual prodigies and 
overcame the heretics, preaching the Law for the conver- 
sion of Devas and men. 

1 It seems evident that these Sang- of the Mah^samghika sect, which is 
h^r&raas, in the neighbourhood of distinctly opi^osed to the Sthavira 
Amr^vti, were built by the followers sect of Ceylon. 

138 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TStANG. [book it. 

To the west of the capital is an old Sanghar^ma; this 
is the place where the Deva Bodhisattva discussed with 
the Arhat Uttara. After the seventh round of questions 
the Arhat gave no further answer ; but by the exercise 
of his supernatural faculties, he passed into the Tusita 
heaven, and there asked M^itreya Bodhisattva respecting 
his difficulties. The Bodhisattva gave him the explana- 
tions required, and then, taking advantage of the occasion, 
addressed him thus : " That Deva, having a long accumu- 
lated store of merit, will, during this Bhadra Kalpa, 
perfect himself in the highest wisdom. You must not 
treat him lightly." Having returned to the spot he now 
undertook to explain the former difficulties. The Deva 
said : " This is the reasoning of M§.itreya B6dhisattva 
and not your own, and your wisdom is derived from him." 

The Arhat, filled with confusion, confessed his inferi- 
ority, and paying him reverence left the place. 

Going south from this through a great forest some 
1500 or 1600 li, we come to the kingdom of Dravida; 
the chief capital of this kingdom is named Kanchipura ; 
this was the birthplace of Dharmapala Bodhisattva. He 
was the son of a great minister of this kingdom. As a 
child he exhibited wonderful wisdom. After he had 
assumed the virile cap, the king, enamoured by his talent, 
wished to give him a princess of his family in marriage. 
The Bodhisattva, who had long disciplined himself to 
reject sensual pleasures, had no mind to incur the pollu- 
tions of love ; on the evening preceding the consummation 
of the marriage, he was overcome with feelings of grief 
and despondency, and betook himself to an image of 
Buddha before which he offered up his prayers and 
besought his protection and deliverance from his present 
difficulties, and this he did with all his heart. 

There was a great king of the spirits who (m conse- 
quence) transported him by his power several hundred 
li from the city. He deposited him in a mountain con- 


vent, in the middle of the hall of Buddha. The priests 
coming in and seeing him there, agreed together that he 
was a thief. The Bodhisattva himself related his adven- 
ture, on which his auditors were filled with astonishment 
and could not but admire his high resolve. He now 
entered the religious life, and applied himself thereafter 
with all his powers to the practice of the true Law. In 
consequence he was able to penetrate the meaning of all 
the schools, and to exercise himself in the art of religious 
composition. He drew up the following works : the 
Sabdavidyd-samyukta-sdstra^ in 25,000 slokas; a com- 
mentary on the ^atasdstra-vdijpulyam ; on the Vidyd- 
mdtra-siddhi ; and on the Niydya-dmra-tdraka-sdstra — 
altogether several tens of books : very extended and highly 
significant of his eminent virtue and great talent. There 
is, moreover, a personal narrative of his history. 

The city of Kanchipura is situated on the mouth (hay) 
of the southern sea of India, looking towards the kingdom 
of Simhala, distant from it three days' voyage. 

In the interval (before the Master of the Law left this 
kingdom) the king of Simhala died : the country was at 
that time suflfering from famine and in a state of disorder, 
there were two eminent priests there called B6dhimegh^i- 
vara and Abhayadanshtra. 

These two with 300 other priests, coming to India, 
arrived at Kanchipura. 

The Master of the Law, having obtained an interview 
with them, asked them as follows : '' It is reported that 
the chief priests of your kingdom are able to explain 
the Tripitaka according to the Sthavira school, and also 
the Y&ga-sastra. I am anxious to go there and study 
these books. May I ask why you have come to this 
place ? '' In reply, they said : " The king of our country 
is dead : and the people are suffering from famine, with- 
out any resource for help. We heard that Jambu^vfpa 
possessed abundance of food and was at peace and settled. 
This, too, is the place of Buddha's birth, and full of 


sacred traces of his presence : for this reason we have 
come. Moreover, among the members of our school who 
know the Law there are none who excel ourselves as to 
age and position ; if you have any doubts therefore, let us, 
according to your will, speak together about these things." 
The Master of the Law then gave examples of choice 
passages of the Yoga-sdstra, both long and short sections, 
but they were not able to explain any of them as 
Silabhadra did.-"- 

It is reported that 30"©o li or so from the frontiers 
of this kingdom is the country of Malakuta ; as it 
borders on the sea-coast it is exceedingly abundant in 
different gems. 

To the east of its chief town is a stupa built by 
A^oka-raja. This is the spot where in old days Tathagata 
preached the Law and exhibited many spiritual changes, 
for the conversion of an innumerable company of persons. 

To the south of this kingdom bordering on the sea 
is Malayagiri, with its precipices and ravines, towering 
upwards and lying deep. Here is found the white 
sandal-scented tree, the Chandaneva tree. This tree is 
like the white poplar. Its substance being of a cold 
nature, many kinds of snakes frequent the trees during 
summer, but in the winter they conceal themselves in the 
ground. Thus this kind of sandal tree is distinguished. 

Again there is the Karpura scented tree. It is like the 
pine in its trunk, but leaves different, as also its blossoms 
and fruit. When the tree is cut down and full of sap, 
it has no scent, but when it has been cut down and dry, 
then dividing it through the middle there is found the 
scented portion, in appearance like mother of pearl and 
of the colour of congealed snow. This is what is called 
Dragon-brain scent {camphoi^). 

Again, it is reported that on the north-east by the 

1 The Yoga system was probably unknown, or slightly known, in Ceylon 
It was a late development of Buddhism. 


BOOK rv.] THE LION -KING. 141 

border of the sea is a city, and from the city, going south- 
east 3000 li or so, we come to the country of Simhala. 

The circuit of this country is about 7000 li: and its 
capital about forty li round. It is thickly populated and 
produces an abundance of grain. Tlie people are black, 
small of stature, and very impulsive: such is their character. 

The country was originally called Po-chu, having many 
gems of a rare character. Afterwards there was a woman 
of South India betrothed to one of a neighbouring 
kingdom, who on her journey met with a lion-king. 
The servants and the attendants, filled with fear, were 
scattered here and there, leaving the woman alone in the 
palanquin. The lion approaching, bore the woman far 
away. Entering the deep mountains he gathered fruits 
and chased the game in order to provide her with food. 
After a captivity of some years she gave birth to a son 
and daughter, in appearance like human beings, never- 
theless of a hot and violent temper. 

The youth having grown up addressed his mother 
thus, '' Of what kind am I ? — my father a beast, my 
mother a human being." The mother then recounted to 
him the old history, for his information. 

The son said, in reply : " Since men and beasts are of 
two different kinds, why not leave him and keep a mutual 
guard, one against the other ? '' 

The mother said : '* I have no disinclination to do so, 
only I see no method of escape." 

The son then followed his father as he passed over 
mou.ntains and through valleys, and observed his route; 
then on another day, taking advantage of 'his father's 
absence, he carried off his mother and sister to a neigh- 
bouring village. Then arriving at the native country of 
his mother, he inquired after her male relatives, but 
found they were all extinct. They then sought refuge 
in a neighbouring village. 

The lion-king returning and not finding his wife and 
children, filled with fury left the forest angrily roaring, 

142 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book iv. 

and destroyed nmiiy women and men of the villages, as 
he roamed to and fro. 

The people informed the king of these facts, and he 
collected the four kinds of troops, the most courageous 
he had, to surround (the lion) and kill him with their 
arrows. The lion having observed this, uttered the most 
dreadful roars, and frightened both men and horses, so 
no one dared to attack him. 

So many days passed without any result. The king 
then issued another proclamation promising a hundred 
thousand gold pieces to any one who could slay the lion. 

Then the son spake to his mother thus : " The cold and 
want we suffer are sad calamities. I will respond to the 
invitation of the king — what think you ? " 

The mother said : " It is impossible ; for although he 
is a beast, yet he is your father, and if you should kill 
him, how can you claim the name of a man ? " 

The son said : " Unless I follow out my plan he will 
certainly not go away : and whilst he is pursuing and 
following us he may enter the village, and then some 
morning the king will know of our return, and our death 
will not be long deferred. What then ? The lion by 
his fury is a source of disaster, and it will befall us also. 
How can it be that for the sake of one, many should 
suffer loss ? I have thought over it again and again ; it 
ought not to be so, I must comply with the request." 

So he went out (to attach the lion) ! The lion when 
he saw him was subdued in manner, and was full of joy : 
he cast off all evil designs of slaughter. The son taking 
a knife cut his throat and rent his belly. Although 
agonised with suffering the lion still retained his love 
and deep affection, and bpre his pain patiently and never 
moved till he died. 

The king hearing of the lion's death, was rejoiced, but 
on account of the strangeness of the circumstances, he 
inquired as to the cause (of the son's conduct). 


At first he prevaricated, but being hardly pressed, he 
was betrayed at last into a confession of the truth. 

The king hearing it exclaimed : " Psha 1 who except 
one born of a beast could have had such a heart ? 
Although I shall not recede from my first promise as to 
the reward ; yet as you have shown yourself to be a man 
guilty of the crime of a parricide, you may no longer 
remain in this country." 

He then directed the magistrates to give him abundance 
of gold and precious jewels, and afterwards to drive him 
into banishment. 

Accordingly they equipped two ships, in which they 
placed a quantity of gold and treasure of all sorts, and 
provisions. Having conducted them ^ to the mid ocean 
they then let them drift at the mercy of the tide. The 
ship containing the young man, after beating about a long 
while, arrived at Po-chu, where, seeing the abundance of 
its rare productions, he resolved to stay. 

Afterwards merchantmen with their family connections 
came there in search of jewels, and took up their abode 
in his neighbourhood. On this he killed the merchants 
and detained their wives and daughters. Thus the 
children and grandchildren increased through many 
generations, and when the population became by degrees 
very numerous, they elected a ruler and ministers, and 
because their distant ancestor had captured and slain the 
lion, they called their country (by its name, Simhala). 

The ship which carried the girl, after beating about at 
sea, came to the western parts of Persia. Falling into 
the hands of demons who dwell there, she gave birth to 
a number of daughters, and this is now the country of 
the Western women. 

But it is also said that Simhala is the name of a 
merchant's son, who by his rare wisdom escaped from the 
mxirderous purpose of the Eaksha demons, and afterwards, 

i That is, the brother and sister. 

144/ THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book iv 

being elected king, came to this Po-clm island and slew 
tlie Kakshas, and established his capital in the country. 
Hence the name, as narrated in the Si-yu-hi} 

This kingdom in former days was without the law of 
Buddha. One hundred years after the Mrvana of Tatb^- 
gata, the younger brother of As6ka-r&,ja, Mahendra by 
name, giving up and rejecting the pleasures of life, 
taking with him foitr'^ Sramanas, forthwith travelling 
here and there through space, came to convert this 
country. In order to exhibit and exalt the teaching of 
Buddha, he manifested his miraculous powers. The 
people of the country, full of faith and admiration, 
founded a Sanghgir^ma. At present there are some 
hundred such foundations, with 10,000 priests. They 
follow the teaching of the Great Vehicle, and belong to 
the school of the Sthaviras. The lay disciples are grave 
and respectful, following the directions of the moral code 
with intelligence and zeal, stimulating one another to 
mutual diligence. 

By the side of the king's palace is the Vih^ra of 
Buddha's tooth, several hundred feet high. It is decorated 
with every kind of precious substance. On the top of it 
is erected a signal staff, v/hich is surmounted by a great 
ruby {Padmardga jewel), and fixed to the tee.^ Its brilliant 
sparkling lights up the heaven, and on a clear and cloud- 
less night it can be seen by those who are even 10,000 
li distant. 

By the side of this is another Vih^ra decorated with 
every kind of gem. Within this building is a golden 
statue made by a former king of the country, in the 
tiara of which is a precious gem of incalculable value. 
In after times there was a man who wished to steal this 
jewel. The place, however, was so well guarded and 
watched that he could not get inside. He then excavated 

^ Records, ii. 240. 2 Dlpavamsa, xii. § 25. 

3 The Khettiya, or graduated spire. 


a subterranean passage and so entered the building. 
When he was just going to take the gem the figure 
gradually grew higher, so that the robber was not able to 
reach it. Then as he went away, he said : " Tathlgata, 
when he practised the discipline of a Bodhisattva in 
former days, did not grudge to sacrifice his life for the 
sake of all flesh, nor did he scruple to give up his 
country or his (native) city — how comes it then that he is 
now niggard in his gifts? We fear that these reports about 
him are not true." The image, on this, bent himself down 
and gave the jewel. The thief having taken it, went forth 
and proposed to sell it. But the men who saw it and 
recognised it, seized the robber and brought him to the 
king. The king demanded how he got the gem. He 
replied, Buddha himself gave it me — and he related the 
whole transaction. The king on his part, seeing the head 
of the image bent downwards, perceived that the event 
was spiritual and sacred, and so his faith was greatly 
deepened, and he gave the robber all kindg of gems and 
precious substances in exchange for the (stolen) jewel. 
Then taking it back he replaced it on the tiara of the 
image, and there it still is. 

At the south-east corner of the country is Lanklgiri. 
Many dSvas and associates of evil spirits dwell here. 
Tathagata in old time delivered the LankS^vatara Sutra 
on this mountain. 

To the south of the country, many thousand li across 
the ocean, is the island called N^rikira. The men of this 
island are small of stature, about three feet in height ; 
they have the bodies of men, but with beaks like birds. 
They have no grain-food, but live on cocoa-nuts. 

This country ^ being too remote, and separated by an 
expanse of sea, the Master was not able to visit it him- 
self, but has related in detail all that he heard from men*s 

1 i.e. Simhala. 

146 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book iv. 

From Di^vida he went north-west in company with 
about seventy priests from Siiiibala, and visited the sacred 
traces for the purpose of reverent observation. 

After going about 2000 1% we come to Kin-na-po-lo^ 
[Konghanapttra], There are about 100 Sanngh§.r^mas 
here, and 10,000 priests belonging both to the Great 
and Little Vehicle. The heretics who practise the 
worship of Devas are also very numerous. 

By the side of the royal palace precincts is a large 
Sangh^rama with about 300 resident priests, all of them 
greatly reverenced for their literary talents. In this 
Vih&ra is a precious head-dress ^ of the Prince Siddh^rtha 
about two feet high ; it is preserved in a richly adorned 
casket. Every religious fast day it is taken out and 
placed on a high pedestal ; those who offer it sincerest 
reverence, frequently see it lit up with radiance. 

In a Sangh^r^ma by the side of the city is a Vih^ra 
in which is a carved sandal- wood figure of Maitreya 
Bodhisattva, about ten feet high. This, also, frequently 
glistens with radiance. It is said that twenty million 
Arhats carved the image. 

To the north of the city is a forest of Talas trees, 
about thirty li in circuit. The leaves of this tree are 
long, and of a shining appearance. The people of these 
countries use them for writing on,^ and they are highly 

From this, going north-west, we pass through a great 
forest which is infested with savage animals and desert; 
after 2400 or 2500 li, we come to the kingdom of 
Maharashtra. The people of this country despise death, 
and highly esteem right conduct. 

The king is of the Kshattriya caste. He is fond of 
military affairs, and boasts of his arms. In this country, 
therefore, the troops and cavalry are carefully equipped, 

1 For, Kong-kin-na-po-lo. ^ Hence it is sometimes called the 

2 Julien gives "the statue of the Pei-to^ i.e. the leaf {patra) tree. 
Prince ; " but it is not so in the text. 


and the rules of warfare thoroughly understood and 
observed. Whenever a general is despatched on a war- 
like expedition, although he is defeated and his army 
destroyed, he is not himself subjected to bodily punish- 
ment, only he has to exchange his soldier's dress for that 
of a woman, much to his shame and chagrin. So, many 
times, those men put themselves to death to avoid such 
disgrace. The king always supports several thousand 
men of valour, and several hundred savage elephants. 
When these are drawn up in battle array, then they 
give them intoxicating spirits to drink, till they are 
overpowered with it — and then at a given signal, when 
in this condition, they excite them to rush against (the 
enemy). His foes are thus without fail put to flight. 
Eelying on these advantages, he holds in contempt all 
the frontier powers that contend with him for the 

surdity a r^ja, boasting of his skill and the invariable 
success of his generals, filled with confidence himself, 
marched at the head of his troops to contend with this 
prince— but he was unable to prevail or subjugate him.-^ 

There are about 100 Saiigh§,r^mas here, and 5000 
priests, who belong to the Great and Little Vehicle 
promiscuously. There are also followers of the heretics 
who worship the D6vas, and cover themselves with ashes. 

Within and outside the capital there are five Stupas, 
all of them several hundred feet (in height). These 
were built by As6ka-r4ja, as mementos of the places 
where the four past Buddhas had walked to and fro. 

From this kingdom, going north-west a thousand li or 
so, crossing the river Ni-mo-to (Narmmadd)^ we come to 
the kingdom of Po-lu-hie-chen-po (Baroche). 

From this, going north-west about 2000 1% we come 

1 Vide Records, vol. ii. p. 256. The Prince's name was Pulake^, 


to the country of Mo4a-p'o (M^lava).^ The people of 
this country in their manner are polished and agreeable. 
They exceedingly love the fine arts. In all the five 
Indies, MS^lava on the south-west, and Magadha on the 
north-east alone have the renown of loving the study of 
literature, of honouring virtue (or goodness), and of polite 
language and finished conversation. 

There are about 100 Sangh^rgimas in this country, 
with 20,000 priests w^ho study the Small Vehicle and 
belong to the Sammatiya school. There are also heretics 
who cover themselves with ashes and worship the host of 
Devas. Tradition says: Sixty years before this there 
was a king called Sil^ditya/ of high talent and singular 
learning. He was humane, affectionate, generous, and 
sweetly attached to his people. He was from the first 
supremely reverent to the doctrine of the three precious 
ones ; and from the time he became king to his death 
no improper word had proceeded from his mouth, nor 
had his face ever flushed with passion. 

His thoughts towards his ministers and his wives 
were always tender, nor would he even injure a fly or 
an ant. He caused the water given to his horses and 
elephants first to be strained and then to be given them, 
lest he should destroy the life of a water insect. He 
impressed on the chief people of the kingdom to avoid 
taking life, and hence the beasts of the desert became 
attached to men, and the wolves ceased to be injurious. 
All the occupants within his borders were quiet, and the 
indications of good fortune daily presented themselves. 
He constructed temporary residences on the largest and 
grandest scale, and made figures of the seven Buddhas. 
He also convoked the assembly called '' Moksha (Mahd- 

Thus for fifty years he continued on the throne carry- 
ing out these moat excellent works without cessation; 

1 Vide Records^ ii. 260. 

2 This was SiUditya of Ujjain, Mecords, i. 108, w. 91. 


and he thus endeared himself to his people, and his 
memory is still revered. 

Twenty li or so to the north-west of the capital by 
the side of Brahmanapura (ihe city of the Brdhmans) is 
a deep ditch ; this is the place where a great arrogant 
Brahman when he abused the Great Vehicle with a 
view to its destruction, went down alive into hell, as is 
related in the Su-yii-ki} 

From this, going north-west 2400 or 2500 1% we 
come to the kingdom of 0-cKa-li (Atali). This district 
produces the Hu-tsian tree, the leaves of which -are like 
those of the pepper-tree of Sz'chuen. It also produces 
the Hiun-hb (Tagara (Jul.) ) perfume tree, the leaves of 
which are like those of the Thcmg-li (the mountain ash). 

From this, going north-west three days, we come to 
the kingdom of K'ie Ch'a. About 1000 li to the north 
of this we come to the kingdom of Fa-la-pi (Vallabhi). 
There are about 100 SanghS^ramas here, and 6000 
priests who study the Little Vehicle, according to the 
Sammatiya school. 

TathS-gata when alive frequently sojourned in this 
country. Asoka-raja erected distinguishing mementos 
in all the places where Buddha stopped. The present 
king belongs to the Kshattriya caste; he is son-in-law 
(nil sai) of Siladitya raja of the kingdom of Kanyakubja ; 
his name is Dhruvabhata.^ He is of a quick and impul- 
sive nature, and his manners are heavy and dull, but 
yet he esteems virtue and advances learning. He is 
faithfully attached to the three treasures, and every year 
he assembles a great gathering, and for seven days he 
entertains priests from all countries and bestows on them 

^ Eecords, a. 264. Text it is translated "Royal hel- 

2 This name is explained in the Si- met," probably a mistake for "ever 

UU-ki by the symbols for " ever intel- helmeted " or " armed " = Dliruva? 

ligent " = Dhruvabatta, but in the bhata. Vide Records^ ii. 267, n, 73. 


food of the best description, choice jewels, bedding and 
clothes, with varieties of medicaments and other things 
of different kinds. 

From this, going north-west about 700 li, we come to 
the country of Anandapura. 

Again, going 500 li or so to the north-west, we come 
to the kingdom of La-sii-cha (for Su-la-c'ha), (Surashtra), 

Erom this, going north-east 1800 li, we come to the 
country of Km-che-lo (Gurjjara). 

Again, going south-east 2800 li or so, we come to the 
country of U-che-yen-na (Ujjayani). Not far from the 
capital is a stupa ; this is the spot where A^oka-r^ja con- 
structed his {flace of ptmishment called) Hell.-^ 

From this, going north-east about 1000 li, we come 
to the country of Chi-ki-to. 

From this, going north-ea'st 900 li or so, we come to 
the kingdom of Mahe^varapura. 

From this, going back in a westerly direction, we again 
come to the country of Suratha. 

Going hence to the west we come to the kingdom of 
0-tin-p'o-chi-lo (Atyanabak^la). When Tathagata was 
alive he repeatedly sojourned in this country, and Asoka 
raja has raised stupas on all the spots he visited {left 
sacred traces), all of which still exist. 

From this, going west about 2000 li, we come to the 
country of Lang-kie-lo (Zangala), which lies near the 
Great Sea, towards the country of the Western women. 

From this, going north-west, we come to the country 
of Po-la-sse (Persia) , which is not within the boundaries 
of India. It is said that this territory abounds in pearls 
and precious substances, in silken brocades and wool, 
sheep, horses, and camels. There are two or three 
Sangharamas here, with some hundred disciples, who 
study the Little Vehicle, according to the school of the 

1 But cf. p. I02. The story must have been carried from Magadha into 


Sarv4stav4dins. The patra of SS,kya Buddha is at pre- 
sent in the royal palace of this country. On the eastern 
frontier is the city of Ho -mo {Ormiiz), the north-west borders 
on the country of Fo-lin.-^ On the south-west, on an island, 
is the country of the Western women. These women 
have no male children among them, but the country 
abounds with precious substances ; it is tributary to 
Fo-lin. The king of Fo-lin every year sends men to 
cohabit with the women, but whatever male children 
are born, they do not rear them. 

Again, going north-east from the kingdom of Langala, 
about 700 li, we come to the kingdom of Pi-to-shi-lo 
(Pit^^il^). Here is a stupa, several hundred feet high, 
which was built by As6ka-raja. It contains relics which 
often emit a brilliant light. Wheii Tathdgata was for- 
merly born as a Rishi, he was slain here by the cruelty 
of the king of the country. 

Erom this, going north-east about 300 li, we come 
to the kingdom of 0-fan-ch'a (Avanda). North-east 
of the capital, in a great forest, are the ruins of a Sang- 
har^ma. Buddha, when formerly living in this place, 
permitted the Bhikshus to wear Kih-fiih-to^ (leather 
boots). There is a stupa built by A^oka raja ; by the 
side of it is a vihara, in which is a standing figure of 
Buddha, made of blue stone, which frequently emits a 
brilliant light. 

South pi this, about 800 paces in a large forest, there 
is a stupa, which was built by A^oka-r^ja. Tathagata, 
in old days, was stoppiug on this spot, when, the night 
being cold, he wrapped himself up in three garments, 
one over the other. When the morning came, he gave 
permission to the Bhikshus to wear quilted garments.^ 

Going from this eastwards 700 li or so, we come to 
the country of Sin-tu (Sindh). This country produces 

1 Probably Bs^ihylon). j,\=h 7rF» 

2 Records, ii. 280, n. 97. » 'j.l^' for \'\\ 


gold, silver, calamine stone (faic shiK), oxen, sheep, 
camels, red salt, white salt, black salt, &c. 

This last kind of salt is used in different places for 
making medicines. Tathagata when alive, frequently 
sojourned in this country ; whatever sacred traces of 
his presence there are, Asoka-r&ja has built stupas on 
those spots as mementos. There are also here traces 
of the great Arhat Upagupta, who sojourned here whilst 
engaged in the conversion of men. 

From this, going east 900 li or so, crossing the river -^ 
to its eastern bank, we come to Mu-lo-san-po-la (Miilas- 
tlianapura or Multan, Si-yto-Jd, ii. 274). The people 
sacrifice to the gods and worship U-fa-tsun (Aditya ?),^ 
that is, the Sun ^-God. His image is cast out of yellow 
gold, and adorned wdth every kind of precious stone. 
People from all neighbouring countries come here to 
offer their prayers. The flowery woods, the tanks and 
ponds, the tastefully arranged tiles, the surrounding 
steps, all these, when viewed as a pleasurable sight, 
cannot but inspire feelings of admiration. 

From this, going north-east 700 li or so, we come to 
the kingdom of Po-fa-to-lo * (Parvata). By the side of 
the capital is a great Sangharama, with about 100 
priests, all of whom study the Great Vehicle. It was 
here Jinaputra, Master of Sastras, formerly composed 
the Yogach^rya-bhumi-^astra-karikl Here, also, the 
Master of Sastras, Bhadraruchi, and the Master of Sastras, 
Gunaprabha, originally became disciples. 

Because this country had two or three leading priests 
whose claims for learning might serve for guidance, the 
Master of the Law stopped here two years ^ and studied 

1 f-r- t/C- 3 The symbol in the text is doubt- 
Pl for yn| f^ii. But I take it for " Jih," the sun, 

2 I should think rather a Persian, ^ For, Po-lo-fa-to. 
than a Sanscrit word, is to be sought -^ Julien has months, 


the Mul4bhidharma-sastra and the Saddharma-Samp^ri- 
graha-slstra, and the Prasiksh&,-satya-^^stra, as received 
in the Sammatlya school. 

Erom this, returning again by a south-east 1 route to Mag- 
adha, the Master arrived at the Nalanda monastery. There 
he paid his respects to the priest called Ohing-fa-tsong, after 
which he heard that to the west of this place about three 
y6janas there was a convent called Tiladaka, where lived 
a renowned priest called Prajnabliadra, a native of Fo-lo- 
po-ti (B&,lapati ?), who had embraced the religious life in 
the school of the SarvastavMins. 

This man had distinguished himself by his knowledge 
of the three Pitakas, and of the Sabdavidya and the 
Hetuvidy& sastras, and others. 

The Master of the Law having remained here for two 
months, closely questioned him about matters on which 
he had doubts. 

From this he went again to the hill called Yashtivana, 
and stopped with a householder who was a native of 
Suratha and a Kshattriya by caste — his name was 
Jayasena, a writer of Sastras. As a youth he was given 
to study, and first under Bhadraruchi, Master of Sastras, 
he had studied the Hetuvidya - sastra ; then under 
Sthitamati Bodhisattva, he had studied the Sabdavidya 
sastra {and others)^ belonging to the Great and Little 
Vehicle. Again under Silabhadra, Master of the Law, 
he -had studied the Yoga-^astra. 

And then again, with respect to the numerous pro- 
ductions of secular {outside) writers : the four Vedas, 
works on astronomy and geography, on the medicinal 
art, magic and arithmetic, he had completely mastered 
these from beginning to end : he had exhausted these 
inquiries root {leaf) and branch ; he had studied all of 
them both within and without His acquirements {virtue) 
made him the admiration of the period. 

Purnavarma r&ja, lord of Magadha, had great respect 

1 Julien gives iVo?'^^-East. 

154 THE LIFE OF MIUEN-TSIANG. [book iv. 

for learned men, and honoured those distinguished as 
sages : hearing of this man's renown, he was much 
pleased, and sent messengers to invite him to come to 
his court, and nominated him " Kioo-sse " (Master of the 
Kingdom), and assigned for his support the revenue of 
twenty large towns. But the Master of S^stras declined 
to receive them. 

After the obsequies of Purnavarma, Slladitya r&ja also 
invited him to be ''the Master {of the country),'' and 
assigned him the revenue of eighty large towns of 
Orissa. But again the Master declined the offer. The 
king still urged him repeatedly to acquiesce, but he as 
firmly refused. Then addressing the king he said : " Jay- 
asena has heard, that he who receives the emoluments 
of the world {men), also is troubled with the concerns 
of life ; but now my object is to teach the urgent 
character of the fetters of birth and death; how is it 
possible then to find leisure to acquaint myself with the 
concerns of the king ? " 

So saying, he respectfully bowed and went away, the 
king being unable to detain him. 

From that time he has constantly lived on the 
mountain called Yashtivana, where he takes charge of 
disciples, teaching and leading them on to persevere, and 
expounding the books of Buddha. The number of laymen 
and priests {religious persons) who honour him as their 
Master is always a large one, amounting to several 

The Master of the Law remained with him first and 
last for two years, and studied a treatise on the difficulties 
of the Yidya-matra-siddhi ^astra, the I-i4i-lun, the Siting- 
wu-toai-lun, the ptch-chu-ni-pan-shih-i-yin-un-hm, the 
chwong-yan-hing-lun ; and he also asked explanations of 
passages in the Yoga and the Hetuvidy^ ^astras which yet 
caused him doubt. 

When this was done he unexpectedly dreamt in the 
night and saw all the chambers and courts of the 


Nalaiida monastery deserted and foul ; moreover, there 
were nought but water buffaloes fastened in them, with 
no priests or followers. The Master of the Law entering 
through the Western gate of the hall of BalS,ditya r^ja, 
beheld on the top of the four-storeyed pavilion a golden- 
coloured man, of a grave and imposing countenance, 
whilst a glorious light shone within the entire abode. 
His mind was overjoyed, and he wished to ascend to the 
top, but he found no way to do so ; he then besought 
him to reach down and lift him up — ^but he replied : 
"I. am Manju^ri B6dhisattva ; your karma does not yet 
admit of {such a privilege) " — and then pointing to the 
outside of the convent, he said : '' Do you see that ? '' 
The Master of the Law looking in the direction indicated 
by his finger, saw a fierce fire burning without the con- 
vent, and consuming to ashes villages and towns. Then 
the golden figure said : " You should ^ return soon, for after 
ten years Sil^ditya raja will be dead,^ and India be laid 
waste and in rebellion, wicked men will slaughter one 
another ; remember these words of mine ! " After he had 
finished, he disappeared. 

The Master of the Law when he awoke, filled with 
pleasurable emotion, went to Jayasena and told him of 
his dream. Jayasena said : " There is no rest in the entire 
world {the three worlds) : it is quite possible it may be, 
as you have heard in your dream; but as you have 
received the intimation, the responsibility is yours : you 
must use your own expedient." From this may be 
gathered, that whatever good men (great students) do, 
all is watched over by Bodhisattvas. When thinking 
of going from India — then it was told to ^ Silabhadra and 
he detained me. When still delaying and not going 
back, then I was told of the fact of death, by way of 
exhortation to return. If my conduct were not in agree- 

1 Kwei tsz' cliii — go from here. 

2 For a fuU examination of this subject, vide Max Miiller's India, p. 286. 
8 p. 146, Jul. — Supra, p. io8. 


ment with the holy mind (of the Bodhisattva) how could 
this have happened ? 

So towards the end of the Yung Hwei ^ period (i.e, 
about 654—5, A.D.), Slladitya r^ja died, and India was 
subjected to famine and desolation, as had been predicted. 
The imperial ambassador, Wang-iln-tse, was at this time 
making ready to be a witness of these things.^ It was 
now the beginning of the first month. 

It is in this same month, according to the rules of the 
Western country, they bring forth from the Bodhi convent 
(viz., at Gdya) the Sariras of Buddha. Both laymen and 
priests from all countries come together to witness the 
spectacle, and to worship. The Master of the Law, 
therefore, with Jayasena both went to see the relic-bones. 
These are both great and small. The large ones are 
like a round pearl, bright and glistening, and of a 
reddish-white colour. There are also Hesh-relics, large as 
a bean, and in appearance shining red. An innumerable 
multitude of disciples offered incense and flowers ; after 
ascribing praises and offering worship they take (the 
relics) back and place them in the Tower (stu^pd). 

At the end of the first watch of the night, Jayasena 
and the Master of the Law were discoursing about the 
inequality as to size of the different Sariras. Then 
Jayasena said, '^Your disciple has seen in different 
places sariras {only) as large as rice grains, how happens 
it then that these are so large ? Venerable sir ! have 
you any doubts on this point ? " 

Hiuen-Tsiang replied, "I share your doubts in this 

After a little while the light of the lamps in the 
building was suddenly eclipsed, and within and without 
there was a supernatural illumination produced. On 
looking out they saw the relic-tower bright and effulgent 
as the sun, whilst from its summit proceeded a lambent 

1 This period lasted to 656 A.D. 
2 That is, the embassy from China to India now being prepared. 


flame of five colours, reaching to the sky. Heaven and 
earth were flooded with light, the mooii and stars were 
no longer seen, and a subtle perfume seemed to breathe 
through and fill the courts and the precincts. 

Then it was noised abroad, from one to the other, that 
the sctTiras were exhibiting a mighty miracle. All the 
multitude, being cognizant of it, came together, and again 
offered their adoration, and spoke in rapture of the won- 
derful sight. By degrees the light grew less and less, 
and when at the last moment it was about to die out, it 
seemed to encircle the dome of the tower several times, 
and then it was absorbed (as it were) within (the tower). 
And now heaven and earth were again wrapped in dark- 
ness, and the different stars once more appeared. All 
who witnessed this miracle were freed from doubts/ 

They then paid worship to the B6dhi tree, and also to 
the sacred vestiges, and eight days having passed they 
returned once more to the N^landa monastery. 

At this time the Master of S^stras, Sllabhadra, deputed 
the Master of the Law to expound to the congregation 
the Mah^y4na-samparigraha-^§.stra, and comments on the 
difficulties of the VidyS,-matra-siddhi-sastra. 

At the same time an eminent priest named Simharasmi^ 
had been explaining for the sake of the fraternity (the 
four classes) the Pranyamnla-^S.stra and the Sata-^S,stra, 
newly arranged, the object of which was to refute the 
principles of the Yoga. 

The Master of the Law had, in the best of spirit, 
opposed the Pr&,nyamula and Sata-S^stra, and approved 
of the Yoga, with the opinion that the illustrious {holy) 
men, who founded these doctrines, each followed one 
thought, and were not mutually at variance, or opposed ; 
and if they cannot be quite reconciled, he said, yet these 
are not contradictory, and the fault is with their successors, 
but this cannot bar the truth of the Law. 

1 It is curious to find from these ^ j. adopt tiiis rendering from 
accounts, the prevalence of such Julien ; my copy has ss:', ''part of an 
*' pious frauds" in India at this time, army," and not sz\ " a lion." 


From a feeling of pity for the narrow views of this 
doctor, the Master of the Law frequently went to question 
and to correct his opinions. But he was unable to induce 
him to reply. From this circumstance his disciples 
gradually left him, and attached themselves to the Master 
of the Law. 

Hiuen-Tsiang aimed by the assertions of the Pranya- 
mula and Sata-^^stras simply to overthrow the conclusions 
of the Sankhya, but said nothing about a self-derived or 
external nature, or the perfectly complete true nature 
(of Buddha) — but yet Simharasmi could not grasp the 
argument nor consent to its truth. He affirmed only 
the proposition " yih-tsai-wu-sho'teh" (" all things without 
attainment'')} and he affirmed that the conclusion of the 
Yoga in reference to the complete, perfect, and true 
{nature), &c., was an error, and this was the uniform posi- 
tion he took up in argument. 

The Master of the Law, in order to reconcile the two 
doctrines,^ affirming that they were not contradictory, 
composed a ^^stra which he called Rwui-Tsung in 3000 
^16kas. When finished he presented it to Silabhadra 
and the great congregation. All spoke approvingly 
of it, and it is generally accepted for study {practice), 

Simharasmi, filled with shame, forthwith left the con- 
vent and went to the Bodhi monastery {at Gdya), There 
he privately requested a fellow-student of his, one Chan- 
drasiriiha of Eastern India, to come with him and discuss 
these difficult points of doctrine, and so relieve him from 
his former disgrace. But when this man came he was 
faint-hearted and silent, and did not dare to say a word. 
Thus the fame of the Master of the Law increased greatly. 

Before Simharasmi had departed StlMitya-r^ja had 

^ i.e. " that nothing is to he attained ^ Viz., ist, that there is nothing to 
Jyy effort ; " this proposition is the be attained by effort ; and 2nd, that 
opposite of yih-tsai-yeou-sho-teh. we may attain the one true nature 

[hy Ydgal. 


constructed a Vih^ra covered with brass plates by the 
side of the N&,landa monastery, about a hundred feet in 
height. It was renowned through all countries. 

The king after returning from the subjugation of Kon- 
yodha (Ganjam ?) came to Orissa. The priests of this 
country all study the Little Yehicle, and do not believe 
in the Great Vehicle. They say it is a system of the 
*' sky-flower " heretics, and was not delivered by Buddha. 

When they saw the king after his arrival, they entered 
into conversation and said : " We hear that the king has 
built by the side of the Ni^landa convent a Vih§.ra of 
brass, a work magnificent and admirable. But why did 
not your majesty construct a K^palika temple, or some 
other building of that sort ? " 

The king answered : " What mean you by these words 
of reproach ? '' 

In reply, they said : " The Monastery of N^landa and 
its ' sky-fiower ' ^ doctrine is not different from the 
Kapalika sect : this is our meaning." 

Before this a consecrated king of South India had a 
teacher, an old Brahman, whose name was Prajnagupta, 
who was well versed in the doctrine of the Sammatlya 
school. This man composed a treatise in 700 £6kas 
against the Great Vehicle. All the teachers of the Little 
Vehicle were rejoiced thereat, and taking the book showed 
it to the king, and said : " This represents our doctrine : 
is there a man of the other school that can upset one 
single word of it ? " 

The king said : " I have heard of the fox, accompanied 
by the meadow rats, boasting he was able to contend with 
the lion, but as soon as he saw him, then his heart failed 
him and they were all scattered in a moment. You, sirs, 
have not yet seen the priests of the Great Vehicle, and so 
you firmly maintain your foolish principles. If you once 

1 The sky-flower ^doctvine is fully SCitra was framed there. The doc- 
explained in the Surangama Stitra. trine is simply that all objective 
It was evidently a doctrine developed phenomena are only, like sky-floivers, 
in the N&landa monastery, as this unreal and vanishing. 

i6o THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book iv. 

see them — affrighted, you will, I fear, then, he the same as 
that (fox). 

Then they answered : " If there be any doubt on the 
king's part about the matter, why not assemble a con- 
ference and let there be a close investigation, as to right 
and wrong ? " 

The king said : " And what difficulty is there in 

So on that very day he sent a messenger with a letter 
to the N&landa convent to Silabhadra, the Master of the 
Law, surnamed ''the treasure of the true doctrine," 
(Saddharma pitaJca ?), in which he said : '' Your servant, 
whilst progressing through Orissa, met some priests of 
the Little Vehicle who, hampered by contracted views, 
adhere to a sdstra which abuses the principles of the 
Great Vehicle. They speak of the followers of that system 
as men of a different religion, and they wish to hold a 
controversy with you on this point. I^nTow I know that 
in your convent there are eminent priests and exceedingly 
gifted, of different schools of learning, who will undoubt- 
edly be able to overthrow them — so now, in answer to 
their challenge, I beg you to send four men of eminent 
ability, well acquainted with one and the other school, 
and also with the esoteric and exoteric doctrine, to the 
country of Orissa." 

When Silabhadra had received the letter, he assembled 
the congregation, and after inquiry, he selected S^gara- 
mati, Prajnarasmi, Siriiharasmi, and the Master of the 
Law, as the four men in reply to the king's mandate. 
When S&garamati and the others were anxious about the 
result, the Master of the Law said : " Hiuen-Tsiang, 
Master of the three pitakas, when residing in his own 
(or, my own) country, and also when he resided in 
Kasmir, thoroughly examined all the schools of learning 
belonging to the Little Vehicle. Those separatists, if 
they purpose by their doctrines to overthrow the Great 
Vehicle, will not be able to do it. Hiuen-Tsiang, al 


though he were a man of slender ability and ordinary 
wisdom, would nevertheless be quite sufficient (to over- 
come them). Be not therefore anxious, venerable sirs ! 
If he were to suffer defeat, he knows that the priests of 
China from this time would have no reputation ! '' 

On this they were all filled with joy. 

But Sil&ditya r^ja again sent a letter to this effect: 
" There is no immediate pressure for my former request : 
let them wait, and afterwards come here/* 

About this time there was a heretic of the '' Shun-si " 
sect (the LoMtiyas), who came to dispute (with the 
Ndlanda monks), and he wrote out forty theses and hung 
them up at the Temple gate. '' If any one within can 
refute these principles/' he said, " I will then give my 
head as a proof of his victory." 

Several days having passed without any response to 
this challenge, the Master of the Law sent an attendant 
("pure man) from within his quarters to go and pull down 
the writing (document), to tear it in pieces, and trample 
it under foot. 

The Brahman in a great rage asked him and said: 
« Who are you ? " 

He said : " I am the servant of Mah^y^nadeva." 

The Brahman, who had long heard of the fame of 
the Master, Was abashed, and dare not go in to dispute 
with him. 

The Master of the Law therefore bade him come in 
and discuss the points. Then in the presence of Slla- 
bhadra he called on all the priests to be witnesses whilst 
he disputed with the Brahman. He then noticed in 
succession the various opinions of the different heretical 
schools, and said : The Bhutas, Mrgranthas, the K^p^- 
likas, and the Jutikas,-^ are all differently arrayed. The 

1 Or, ChudinJcas, ascetics with matted liair. Cf. Eitel, Handbook, sub. 

i62 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG. [book iv. 

Sankhyas and tlae V&iseshikas -^ are mutually opposed. 
The Bhutas cover themselves with cinders, and think 
this to be meritorious. Their skin of a livid white colour 
looking like a cat in the chimney corner. The ISTirgran- 
thas and their followers go without clothing, and so 
attract notice, making it a meritorious act to pull out 
their hair by violence ; their skin dried up and their feet 
hard, and in appearance like the decayed wood on the 
river bank. The sect of the K^p^likas, with their 
chaplets of bones round their heads and necks, inhabiting 
holes and crevices of the rocks, like Yakshas who haunt 
the place of tombs. As for the Ohingkias (Chudinhas), 
they wear garments soiled with filth, and eat putrid food. 
They resemble pigs that lie wallowing in the midst of a 
cesspool. And now, how can you regard these things 
as proofs of wisdom ? — are they not evidences of madness 
and folly ? 

As to the heretics called Sankhyas (sho-lun)^ they 
establish twenty-five principles ; from praJcriti or mula- 
praJcriti, proceeds mahat; from mahat proceeds ahan- 
Mra ; from this proceed the ^ve subtle particles (called 
tanmdtra) ; from these proceed the Rve elements ; from 
these the eleven organs (of sense and action). These 
twenty-four all minister to and cherish the soul (S^tman), 
which accepting and using the help thus given, excludes 
and removes itself. This being done, then the ^^soul" 
remains pure and uncontaminated.^ 

As for the Vai^eshikas,^ they establish six predica- 
ments, viz., " the true " (stchstance), quality, action, exist- 
ence, the same and the different nature, the harmonious 
aggregate nature. These six are apprehended by soul, 
which by apprehending them, not being already liberated, 
is, by this apprehension, liberated, and by freedom from 
the six laksTianas^ it arrives at what is called IsFirvana. 

1 Formerly called Wei-si-sse ; the is very great. I depend on the 
ex-pression uBeA in the Text Shing-lun, Chinese version of the Samkliya- 
probably refers to this system, as a Karika [Hanjio, No. 1300). 

logical school of philosophy. ^ Colebrooke, p. 182. 

2 The difficulty of this translation ^ Chinese "sia/i^,'* 


But now, to rebut the principles of the Samkhya- 
Sastra ; you say that in the presence of your twenty-five 
principles, the character of " soul " ^ is distinct and 
diverse, but by intermingling with the other twenty-four 
it becomes substantially and intimately one. And you 
say that Nature (PraJcriti) is hypostatised by union with 
the three '' giinas'' of "Sattva," "rajas" and " tamas," 
and by intermingling of these three, there is perfected 
the " Mahat " and the other twenty-three principles ; 
thus you affirm that these twenty-three principles are 
perfected by the three gunas. But if you constrain your 
^' Mahat " and the others, to lay hold of the three, and 
so to become perfect, as in case of a crowd or a forest ^ 
and without this intermingling they are false, — how then 
do you say that "all things are true" {substantially 
true) ? 

Again, " M^hat " and the rest, being each perfected by 
the three, then each one so perfected is the same as the 
whole ; but if each is the same as the whole, then the 
office qf each ought to be the same, and then, where is 
the force of the three forming the substance of all ? 
Again, if one is the same as all, then the mouth and 
the eye functions, and so on, are the same as the 
functions of nature. 

Again, if each function discharges the duties of all, 
then the mouth and the ear, and so on, ought to smell 
perfumes and see colours ; for if not, what is the meaning 
of the assertion that the three " gunas " make one common 
substance ? How can any sensible man formulate such 
principles ? 

But again, " FraJcriti " and " dtman" both being eternal, 
ought to be in their hypostases identical ; how, then, can 
one, in distinction from the other, by intermingling, pro- 
duce M^hat, and so on ? 

But again, with respect to the nature of " dtman'* if it 

1 Personal existence. rest,' say the Samkliyas.— (7oZe6rooi^e, 

2 " We speak of the qualities of p. 158. 
Mature as we do of the trees of a fo- 

i64 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TSIANG, [book iv. 

is eternal, then it is the same as '^praJcriti " — but if they 
are the same, then what need of speaking of " dtman " ? — 
and then the '' dtman " is not able to accept the aid of 
the twenty-four principles, and so there can be no possi- 
bility of establishing the different offices of '' subject " and 
" ohjectr 

Thus far, and in the same way, he discoursed, whilst 
the Brahman was silent and unable to reply J' 

But at last, rising up, he respectfully said : " I am 
overcome ; I am ready to abide by the former compact/' 

The Master of the Law said : '' We who are S^kya- 
putras do not propose as our end the destruction of the 
life of men. I now bid you act as my servant and follow 
my directions {teaching, or doctrine). 

The Brahman was overjoyed and imxmediately attached 
himself to his service. All who heard of this affair were 
filled with admiration and praise. 

And now, the Master of the Law being desirous to go 
to Orissa, inquired about getting the essay of the ''Little 
Vehicle'' which proposed to destroy the principles of the 
^' Great Vehicle'' in 700 £okas. - 

The Master of the Law after examination found several 
passages of a doubtful character. 

He then addressed the Brahman whom he had con- 
quered : " Have you in former days studied these prin- 
ciples or not ? " 

He replied : " Yes ! I have studied them five times." 

The Master of the Law wished to make him speak to 
the point — on which he said : " How can I, who am your 
slave, venture to instruct you ? " 

Then the Master of the Law said : " These are heretical 
doctrines of which I know nothing : you may speak to me 
without any compunction.'' 

^ The foregoing section is omitted by Julien. I offer my translation as 
tentative only. 


" In that case," he said, " let us wait till the middle of 
night, lest any of the public should suppose that you had 
aught to learn from me, your slave, and so lose confi- 
dence in your celebrity." 

Accordingly when the night was advanced he dismissed 
all the rest, and caused him to go through the entire 

Then having grasped the errors of the work, he wrote 
a refutation of it in 1 600 ^lokas, and called it " The 
destruction of heresy'' taking up the doctrines of the 
Great Vehicle, point by point. 

He presented the work to Silabhadra, and amongst all 
the disciples there was not one, on reading the work, but 
was consenting to it. " Who," they said, '' can overturn 
such arguments ? " 

And now, not forgetful of the origin of this refutation, 
he said to the Br4hman : "You have been sufficiently 
humiliated as my slave, after conquest had in argument ; 
I now liberate you ; you may go where you will" 

The Brahman, filled with joy, went forth to Kamarupa, 
in Eastern India, and told Kuin&,ra-raja about the high 
qualities of the Master of the Law. The king hearing 
of it was overjoyed, and immediately sent a message, 
bidding the Master of the Law to come to him. 

i66 THE LIFE OF HtUEN-TSIANG. [book v. 


Begins with the prediction of the Nirgrantha relating to his 
return home^ and ends with his arrival in China. 

In the interval, before the arrival of the messenger of 
KumS^ra, a naked Nirgrantha disciple, whose name was 
Yajra, unexpectedly entered the chamber (of the Master 
of the Zaw). 

ISTow the Master of the Law had heard of old time 
that the Mrgranthas are skilled in divination {divining 
ly lots). He asked this man therefore to be seated and 
opened out his doubts to him, questioning and saying: 
" Hiuen-Tsiang, a priest of China, has been here inquiring 
and studying for a year and some months. He now 
wishes to return home, but does not know whether his 
way is open to do so, nor whether it is better for his 
good fortune to stay or to go ; he is in doubt, too, about 
the length or shortness of his life. ' I pray you, good 
sir, cast my horoscope and see." ^ 

The JSTirgrantha then took a piece of white stone and 
drew a figure on the ground, and after casting the lots, he 
replied : *^ It is very good for the Master to stay, all the 
clergy and laity in the five Indies have a profound respect 
for him; the time for going and successfully returning, 
with the respect of all, is also fortunate ; but not so good 
as the other. i\s for the years of your life, you will have 
ten years added to your present age. But as for evidence 
as to the continuation of your present good fortune, there 
is nothing to be found out." 

The Master of the Law again asked him : " My mind's 

1 This, in connection with other passages, is sufficient to show the supersti- 
tious character of the Pilgrim. 


purpose is to return, but having a great number of images 
and sacred books, I hardly know if I shall succeed in 
arriving with them." 

The Nirgrantha said : '' Do not be anxious : Sil&,ditya 
r^ja, and Kum^ra-r^ja will themselves despatch men as 
escort; the Master will successfully return without 

The Master of the Law, in reply, said : " As to these 
two kings I have never yet seem them, how Jhen can 
such a kindness befall me ? " 

The Mrgrantha said : " Kum4ra-rS.ja has already sent 
messengers to invite you to go to him, in two or three 
days they should arrive. After you have seen Kum§,ra 
you v/ill also see SllMitya." 

Having thus spoken he went away. 

The Master of the Law forthwith making up his mind 
to return, paid especial attention to his books and images. 

All the priests hearing of it, came to him in a body 
and begged him to remain, saying : '^ India is the place 
of Buddha's birth. The great Saint, although he has 
passed away, has yet left behind him many traces {of his 
presence) ; what greater happiness in life than to visit, and 
adore, and exalt these {relics) ? Why then do you leave 
these, after having come so far ? Moreover, China is a 
country of Mlecchas, men of no importance, and shallow 
as to religion, and so the Buddhas are never born there. 
The mind {of the 'peo'ple) is narrow, and their coarseness 
is profound, and hence neither saints nor sages go there 
from this country ; the coldness of the climate, and the 
ruggedness of the country — these circumstances, also, are 
enough to cause you to think ! " 

The Master of the Law replied : " The king of the Law, 
i.e. Buddha (Dharmaraja), in establishing the principles of 
his doctrine, designed them for universal diffusion: how then 


can those who have received the benefit thereof, exclude 
those not yet enlightened. In that country of China the 
superior magistrates are clothed with dignity, and the laws 
are everywhere respected. The prince is regarded as sacred, 
the ministers are faithful, parents are loving, children are 
obedient, virtue and justice are highly esteemed, age and 
uprightness preferred in honour. Moreover, how deep 
and mysterious their knowledge ! how divine the model of 
their wisdom ! their rules in agreement with heaven. 
They do not regard the seven heavenly bodies as hidden 
from their literature/ they make instruments, divide the 
seasons, produce the six sharp-notes of music, and so are 
able to tame or drive away birds or beasts, subdue the 
spirits to their will, calm the influences of the yang and 
yin principles in N'ature. From the time the bequeathed 
doctrine of Buddha penetrated to the East, they have 
highly venerated the Great Vehicle ; in meditation, they 
are placid as the shining waters-; in morals, their renown 
is like the perfume of opening flowers ; in practice, they 
engage the heart; their earnest vow is to obtain the 
fullest degree of merit, and by quiet abstraction to 
prepare for the acquisition of the threefold body, and the 
highest condition of being. 

'' The great holy one descending spiritually (into the 
world) y himself raised the standard of religious teaching, 
and proclaimed the excellent doctrine, he was exhibited in 
his golden features to the eyes of men, and still there is 
no check to the aim of his long career. 

" How then can you say that Buddha did not go to this 
country (of China) because of its insignificance ? " 

They replied : '' The Scriptures say that all regions are 
blessed with plenty or the opposite, according to their 
meritorious condition in point of religious excellence. 
It is better for the Master of the Law to live here with 
us in Jambudvipa where Buddha was born than to go to 

1 That is, they are acquainted with bodies {viz., the sun, the moon, and 
the movements of the seven heavenly five planets). 


that country, inasmuch as that is a frontier and an evi] 
country, without any religious merit, and for this reason 
we urge the Master not to return there." 

The Master of the Law replied : " Vimalakirrti, 
speaking to a disciple, said : ' Why does the sun travel 
over Jambudvipa ? ' * To disperse the gloom,' was the 
answer. This, also, is the reason why I purpose to 
return to my own country/' 

The priests having perceived that there was no agree- 
ment likely, besought him to go (with them) to Sila- 
bhadra, Master of the Law, and set forth his intention to 
him. Then Sllabhadra, Master of the Law, addressing 
him, said : '' Why, sir, have you come to this resolution ? " 

He replied : " This country is the place of Buddha's 
birth : it is impossible not to regard it with affection ; 
only Hiuen-Tsiang's intention in coming hither was to 
inquire after the great law for the benefit of his fellow 
creatures. Since my arrival here, you, sir, have con- 
descended, on my account, to explain (or, recite) the 
Yog^ch&rya-bhiimi-s^stra, and to investigate doubtful 
passages. I have visited and adored the sacred vestiges 
of our religion, and heard the profound exposition of the 
different schools. My mind has been overjoyed, and my 
visit here, has, I protest, been of the utmost profit. I 
desire now to go back and translate and explain to others 
what I have heard, so as to cause others also to be 
equally grateful to you, with myself, in hearing and 
understanding these things ; and for this reason I am 
unwilling to delay my return and remain here." 

Silabhadra joyfully replied: "These are thoughts 
worthy of a Bodhisattva ; my heart anticipates your own 
wishes ! I will give orders for your conveyance hence ; 
and you, my friends, do not cause any trouble by delay- 
ing him." 

Having said this, he retired to his room. After two 
days the messenger sent by Kumara-E^ja of Eastern 
India presented a letter to Sllabhadra, to this effect: 


" Your disciple wishes to see the great priest come from 
China. I pray you, respected sir, to send him and so 
gratify this imperial thought of mine." 

Silabhadra, on receipt of the letter, announced to the 
congregation as follows : " Kum^ra-E&ja wants to invite 
Hiuen-Tsiang {to go to him), but we >have already agreed 
to induce him to go to SllS^ditya-E^ja's residence, to discuss 
with the {doctors of the) Little Vehicle. If he goes to 
that one {Kumar a), perhaps StlMitya will be expecting 
him, and then how will he be able to secure his presence ? 
we ought not to send him." And so he told the messenger 
saying : " The priest of China is anxious to return to his 
own country and so is unable to comply with the king's 

The messenger having arrived, the king again de- 
spatched another to renew the invitation, in these words : 
" Although the Master wishes to return home, yet for a 
little while let him come to your disciple. There shall be 
no difficulty about his departure. I pray you comply with 
my humble request, and do not again decline to come." 

Silabhadra not having consented to the proposal, the 
king with great anger sent yet another messenger with a 
personal despatch for Silabhadra, the Master of the Law, 
to the following effect : '* Your disciple like a common man 
has followed the way of worldly pleasure, and has not 
yet learnt the converting power residing in the law of 
Buddha. And now when I heard the name of the priest 
belonging to the outside country, my body and soul were 
overjoyed ; expecting the opening of the germ of religion 
(within me). But you, sir, have again refused to let him 
come here, as if you desired to cause the world to be for 
ever plunged in the dark night (of ignorance^ Is this 
the way in which your Eminence hands down and trans- 
mits the bequeathed law for the deliverance and salvation 
of all the w^orld ? Having an invincible longing to think 


kindly of and show respect to (the Master), I have again 
sent a messenger with a written request : if he does not 
come, your disciple will then let the evil portion of him- 
self prevail. In recent times Sasangka-raja was equal 
still to the destruction of the law and uprooted the Bodhi 
tree. Do you, my Master, suppose that your disciple has 
no such power as this ? If necessary then I will equip 
my army and elephants, and like the clouds sweep down 
on and trample to the very dust that monastery of 
Nal^nda. These words (are true) as the sun ! Master ! 
it is better for you to examine and see (what you will do)." 
Stlabhadra having received the letter, addressed the 
Master of the Law thus : " With regard to that king, 
his better mind (or, virtuous mind) is fast bound and 
weak ; within his territories the law of Buddha has not 
widely extended : since the time that he heard your 
honourable name, he has formed a deep attachment for 
you; perhaps you are destined to be in this period of 
your existence his ' good friend.' ^ Use your best diligence 
then and go. You have become a disciple in order to 
benefit the world, this then is perhaps your just oppor- 
tunity : and as when you destroy a tree you have only 
to cut through the root, and the branches will of them- 
selves wither away, so when you arrive in that country 
only cause the heart of the king to open (to the truth), 
and then the people will also be converted. But if you 
refuse and do not go, then perhaps there will be evil 
deeds done. Do not shrink from this slight trouble." 

The Master of the Law, leaving his teacher, went with 
the envoy, and arrived there. The king seeing him was 
greatly rejoiced, and met him with his great officers, and 
paying him reverence with much ceremony, conducted 
him within his palace. Every day he arranged music and 
banquets, with religious offerings of flowers and incense, 

1 For this expression vide Haug's Essays on the Parsees [Truhyiefs Edition) , 
p. 209. 


and requested him to follow the ordinary rules of religious 
fast days. 

Thus passed a month and more, when SllMitja-i^ja, 
returning from his attack on Kongy6dha, heard that the 
Master of the Law was residing with Kumara. Being 
surprised, he said : " I frequently asked him to come 
here before this — and he did not come, how is it that he 
is now living there ? " Sending a messenger, therefore, 
he bade Kumara-r^ja to send the priest of China to him 
at once. 

The king replied, " He can take my head, but he can- 
not take the Master of the Law yet." The messenger 
returning gave this answer, on which the Siladitya-r^ja 
was greatly enraged, and calling together his attendants, 
he said : " Kumara-r^ja despises me. How comes he to use 
such coarse language in the matter of a single priest ? " 

Then he sent another messenger who said, in an abrupt 
manner : " Send the head, that I may have it immediately 
by my messenger who is to bring it here." 

Kumara, deeply alarmed at the folly of his language — 
immediately ordered his army of elephants, 20,000 in 
number, to be equipped, and his ships, 30,000 in number. 
Then embarking with the Master of the Law they passed 
up the Ganges together in order to reach the place where 
StMditya-rS.ja was residing. When he arrived at the 
country of Kie-shu-ho-ki-lo {Kajurgira), there was a con- 
ference held, and Kum&,ra, being about to depart to 
explain matters, first ordered some men to construct on 
the north bank of the Ganges a pavilion-of-travel, and 
then on a certain day he passed over the river and 
coming to the pavilion he there placed the Master of the 
Law, after which he himself with his ministers went to 
meet S!l§,ditya-raja on the north bank of the river. 

Siladitya seeing him coming was overjoyed, and know- 
ing his respect and love for the Master of the Law, he 
did not repeat his former threatening words, but simply 
asked him where the priest of China was stopping. 


In reply he said : " He is staying in a certain pavilion- 

The king said : " And why did he not come with you ? " 

" Eeplying, he said : " Mah^iSja has respect for the 
virtuous, and loves religion; why not send for the 
Master to come to confer with the king ? " 

The king said: "It is well; but for the present you 
may depart to your residence, and to-morrow I myself 
will come." 

Kum&ra returning spoke to the Master of the Law, 
saying : " The king, although he says he will come to- 
morrow, I suspect he will come to-night; and we must 
attend him when he comes — but if he arrives, let not 
the Master be moved (with amoiety),'' 

The Master of the Law replied : " Hiuen-Tsiang will 
conduct himself according to the directions of the Law of 

About the first watch of the night the king did in 
effect arrive. There were some men who reported that 
on the river there were several thousand lighted torches, 
and that they heard the sound of beating drums. 

The king said : " This is SllMitya-r4ja approaching." 

He immediately ordered them to take torches in hand, 
whilst he himself, with his ministers, went forth a long 
way to meet him. 

As ^lladitya-r^ja marched, he was always accompanied 
by several hundred persons with golden drums, who beat 
one stroke for every step taken ; they called these the 
*' music-pace-drums " (tsieh-po-kv), 

Sil^ditya alone used this method — other kings were 
not permitted to adopt it. 

On his arrival the king bowed down at the feet of the 
Master of the Law, then scattering flowers before him he 
regarded him with respect, and uttered his praises in verses 
innumerable ; this done, he addressed the Master thus : 

"Your disciple invited the Master in former days to 
come, — why did you not comply with my req^uest ? *' 


Answering, he said : " Hiuen-Tsiang came from far in 
search of the law of Buddha, and for the sake of hearing 
the Yoga-bhiimi-s^stra. When your order arrived I had 
not finished examining this sdstraj and so did not 
immediately come to meet the king." 

Again the king asked, as follows : " The Master comes 
from China ; your disciple has heard that that country 
has a king of Ts'in, whose fame is celebrated in songs 
and airs set for dancing and music; 'I never yet knew 
who this king of Ts'in was, or what his distinguished 
merit was, that led to this distinction/' ^ 

The Master of the Law said : " In my country when 
there is a man observable for the quality of protecting 
the good, capable of averting evil from the people, and 
able to nourish and cherish with fostering care all living 
things — then they sound his praise in songs and chants 
arranged to music, in the first place, for the ancestral 
temple ; and then for the use of the distant village folk. 
The king of Ts'in is the same, now, as the reigning 
Emperor of China — but before the highest authority of 
the Emperor {i.e. She-wong-ti) was established, then he 
was but invested as prince of Ts'in. This was a period 
of disorder in heaven and earth; the people had no 
ruler, the fields and plains were covered with the bodies 
of men, the streams and valleys were full of their blood ; 
during the night ill-omened stars shed their pestilent light, 
vapours rose with the day, the three rivers were infested 
by voracious toll-collectors, and the four seas were 
afflicted with the poison of monstrous snakes, 

" The Prince, as the next of kin to the supreme ruler 
{ti), obedient to the call of Heaven, filled with noble 
ardour, rallied his troops, put down the oppressors (male 
and female, h'ing i) by force ; seizing the battle-axe and 
the lance, he quickly calmed the sea, the villagers were 

1 The reference is presumably to tlie Emperor She-wong-ti, B.C. 221, 


profoundly quiet, and the districts restored to order as 
before. The sun and moon and stars shone out again, 
and the world was filled with gratitude for his care. 
For this reason we sing his praises." 

The king said : " Such a man is one, sent by heaven 
to be the Lord of the world." 

Again addressing the Master of the Law, he said: 
" Your disciple must now return ; to-morrow I will escort 
the master (to our palace) — I trust he will not suffer 
from fatigue." 

Thus taking leave, he departed. 

On the next morning the messenger came, and the 
Master of the Law with Kum^ra went together to 
Siladitya's palace, on arriving near wliich the king with 
some twenty attendants came forth to meet them. En- 
tering they sat down, when choice viands were set before 
them, accompanied with music and strewn flowers. 

The entertainment being over, the king said : " I have 
heard that the Master has composed a Sastra with a 
view to restrain wicked doctrine — where is this work ? " 

The Master of the Law replied, " It is here," and 
then he caused the king to take it and look at it. 

Having examined it the king was much pleased, and 
addressing his attendants and the rest, he said : " I have 
heard that when the sun rises in its splentiour the light 
of the glow-worm is eclipsed, and when the sound of 
heaven's thunder is heard, then the noise of the hammer 
and chisel is silenced : so with regard to the doctrine 
which the Master defends, all the others have been 
destroyed, and in discussing the method of right deliver- 
ance, the priests have not dared to offer a word." 

The king said {moreover), " The chief Sthavira of the 
priests, Devasena, said of himself — that in the explana- 
tion of doctrine he was superior to all his rivals, and in 


his studies embraced all branches of science. But in 
advancing his strange opinions he ever opposed the 
' Great Vehicle/ Hearing, however, that the stranger 
priest had come he forthwith went to Yalsali, to pay 
reverence to the sacred vestiges — from this I gather that 
all these priests are without ability in discussion." 

The king had a sister of great intelligence who was 
distinguished for knowledge of the Sammatiya-school 
doctrine; she was sitting behind the king, and as she 
heard the Master of the Law extolling the doctrine of 
the Great Vehicle, and exposing the extreme poverty of 
the Little school of Doctrine, she was filled with joy, and 
could not cease her praises. 

Then the king said : " The treatise written by the 
Master is very good ; quite enough to convince both 
your disciple (i.e. himself), and all these teachers, and 
the faithful generally ; but I fear there are other sectaries 
belonging to the Little Vehicle, of other countries, who 
will still cling to and defend their foolish doctrine. I 
propose therefore to call a grand assembly in the town 
of Kany^kubja, and command the Sramans and Brahmans 
and heretics of the five Indies to attend, in order to 
exhibit the refinements of the Great Vehicle, and demolish 
their abusive mind, to make manifest the exceeding merit of 
the Master, and overthrow their proud thought of ' self.' " 

The same day he sent an order throughout the different 
kingdoms that all the disciples of the various schools 
should assemble in the town of Kany^kubja to investi- 
gate the treatise of the Master of the Law, of China. 

Then the Master of the Law, at the beginning of 
winter, in company with the king, advanced up the river 
(Ganges) and in the beginning of the last month ^ of 
the year arrived at the rendezvous. 

1 In the Records, i. 218, we are told be inclined, therefore, to consider the 
they were ninety days in their pro- symbol "La" in the text as equal to 
gress towards the rendezvous. I should Vc^rshOj, 


There were present kings of eighteen ^ countries of the 
five Indies ; ^ three thousand priests thoroughly acquainted 
with the Great and Little Vehicle, besides about three 
thousand Br^hmans and Nirgranthas and about a thousand 
priests of the N^landa monastery. All these noted per- 
sons, alike celebrated for their literary skill, as for their 
dialectic, attended the assembly with a view to consider and 
listen to the sounds of the Law ; they were accompanied 
with followers, some on elephants, some in chariots, some 
in palanquins, some under canopies. Each was surrounded 
by its own peculiar attendants, like the clouds for multi- 
tude, which in the winter time spread through many 
scores of miles, and if we said that they were like the 
standards ^ of the rebellious tribes of the three " Wu'' or like 
the drops of rain which fall from the clouds, even this 
would not be an exaggeration. 

The King had previously ordered two thatched halls 
to be constructed at the place of the assembly for receiv- 
ing the figures {of Buddha) and the body of the disciples. 

When he arrived they were both finished ; they were 
lofty and spacious, each capable of seating a thousand 
persons. The travelling palace of the king was some 
five li to the west of the place of assembly ; he had in 
this palace cast a golden statue, and now, ordering a great 
elephant to be equipped with a precious dais on its back, 
he placed thereon (the statue of) Buddha. Then Sil^ditya 
raja, under the form of Lord Sakra, with a white chowrie 
in his hand, went on the right, and Kum^ra-rSja, under 
the form of BrMima-r^ja, with a precious parasol in his 
hand, went to the left. They both wore tiaras like the 
Devas, with flower wreaths and jewelled ribbons. 

Moreover, they harnessed two other great elephants 
and laded them with jewels and flowers (or, precious 

1 The Si-yu-Tci states that there were Central India ; " but it is not so in 
twenty kings present, vide Records^ the text. 

i. 218 3 The passage in the original is de- 

2 Julien says: ''eighteen kings of faced, 



flowers) to follow behind the image of Buddha, and each 
step they took they scattered these flowers abroad. 

The Master of the Law and the chief servants of the 
king were directed severally to mount a great elephant, and 
to follow the king in order ; moreover, there were other 
300 great elephants appointed for the princes, great 
ministers, and chief priests of the different countries, on 
which they rode in double file on each side of the pro- 
cession course, chanting laudatory verses as they went. 
The procession began at early dawn from the travelling 
palace (of the Jang). As they drew nigh the gate of 
the outer court of the place of assembly, each one was 
directed to dismount whilst they conducted the figure of 
Buddha within the hall. There they placed it on a pre- 
cious throne, whilst the king and the Master of the Law, 
in succession, presented it with offerings. 

After this the king ordered the princes of the eighteen 
countries to enter the Hall ; then, of the most renowned 
priests celebrated for learning he selected about one 
thousand to enter the hall ; of celebrated Brahmans and 
followers of heretical doctrine he selected five hundred 
to enter the hall, and about two hundred of the great 
ministers of the different kingdoms. The unbelievers 
and secular persons (who were not able to he admitted) he 
ordered to be seated outside the gate of the entrance hall. 

The king then sent to those within and without, alike, 
food to eat. This done, he presented as an offering to 
Buddha ^ a golden dish, a golden cup, seven golden ewers, 
one golden staff, three thousand gold pieces, and three 
thousand vestments of superior cotton-stuff. 

The Master of the Law and the other priests each 
offered according to their different ability. 

This being over, the king caused a precious couch to 
be arranged, and invited the Master of the Law to sit 
upon it as Lord of the discussion. 

The Master then began to extol the teaching of " the 

1 Julien translutes tins passage very differently, Vie^ p. 244. 


Great Vehicle," and announced a subject for discussion, 
and lie commissioned Ming-Men, a Shaman of the ISTalanda 
monastery, to exhibit it to the members of the great Com- 
munity. He also caused a placard to be written and 
hung outside the door of the place of assembly, exhibiting 
the same to the whole people, and adding, " if there is any 
one who can find a single word in the proposition con- 
trary to reason, or is able to entangle {the argument), 
tlien at the request of the opponent, I offer my head as 
a recompense." 

Thus until night there was no one who came forward 
to say a word. 

Sil^ditya-rS.ja, very well pleased at the event, adjourned 
the assembly and returned to his palace ; whilst the 
princes and the priests all returned to their resting-places. 
So also Kum^ra-raja and the Master of the Law retired 
to their resting-places. 

On the morrow they again escorted the image, the 
king and the others, as before. 

After five days had passed, the unbelievers of the 
Little Vehicle, seeing he had overturned their school, 
filled with spleen, plotted to take his life. 

The king hearing of it, issued this proclamation : " The 
seething of error obscuring the truth, is the experience 
of ages. {The folloivers of false doctrine), hiding the 
true, deceive the people ; if the world were without 
superior sages, how could their falsehood be discovered ? 
The Master of the Law of China, whose spiritual power 
is so vast, and whose power of explanation is so grand 
and deep, with a view to rebut the errors of the people, 
has come to sojourn here, to exhibit the character of the 
great Law, and to rescue the foolish and the deceived. 
But the followers of delusion and falsehood, not knowing 
the way of repentance or the forsaking of error, have 


conceived a murderous purpose against his person ; this 
intention must inspire every one with resentment. If, 
then, any one should hurt or touch the Master of the 
Law, he shall be forthwith beheaded; and whoever 
speaks against him, his tongue shall be cut out ; but all 
those who desire to profit by his instruction, relying on 
my goodwill, need not fear this manifesto." 

From this time the followers of error withdrew and 
disappeared, so that when eighteen days had passed there 
had been no one to enter on the discussion. 

The evening before the dispersion of the assembly the 
Master of the Law again extolled the Great Vehicle, and 
sounded the praises of the religious merit of Buddha, by 
which a vast number of men were converted from error 
and entered on the right path : forsaking the Little 
Vehicle, they found refuge in the Great Vehicle. 

Siladitya-r^ja, reverencing him more than ever, be- 
stowed on the Master of the Law 10,000 pieces of gold, 
30,000 pieces of silver, 100 garments of superior cotton, 
whilst the princes of the eighteen kingdoms each pre- 
sented him with rare jewels. But all these the Master 
of the Law declined to accept. 

The king then ordered his attendant ministers to place 
a howdah upon a great elephant, with the request that 
the Master of the Law would mount thereon, whilst he 
directed the great Ministers of state to accompany him ; 
and as they passed through the throng he directed the 
proclamation to be made that ''he had established the 
standard of right doctrine, without gainsaying." 

This is the custom of the Western kingdoms whenever 
any one has obtained the victory in discussion. 

The Master of the Law desired to waive this mark of 
distinction and not to go in procession, but the king 
said : " It has ever been the custom, the matter cannot 


be passed over " — and so, holding the Master of the Law 
by his kash&ya garment, they everywhere proclaimed, 
"The Master of the Law from the kingdom of China 
has established the principles of the Great Vehicle and 
overthrown all opposing doctrines ; for eighteen days no 
one has dared to enter on the discussion. Let this be 
known everywhere, as it ought to be ! " 

The whole multitude were filled with joy on account 
of the Master's success, and all wished to fix for him a 
name in connection wath his principles. 

The congregation of the Great Vehicle called him 
Mali^y^na D6va, that is, the Deva of the Great Vehicle, 
whilst the followers of the Little Vehicle called him 
Moksha D^va, i,e, the Deva of deliverance, Tiien they 
burnt incense and scattered flowers, and paid him 
reverence and departed. 

From this time (or, circumstance) the report of his 
eminence {virtue) spread abroad everywhere. 

To the west of the king's travelling palace there was a 
Sangh^r4ma under the patronage of the king. In this 
building there was a tooth of Buddha about an inch and 
a half long and of a yellowish white colour. It ever 
emits a sparkling light. 

In old days when the Kritya^ race in Kalmir had de- 
stroyed the law of Buddha, and the priests and their 
disciples were scattered everywhere, there was a Bhikshu 
who travelled {from there) afar through India. His 
follower, the king of Himatala, of Turkh^ra, was enraged 
that this despicable race should destroy the law of 
Buddha, disguised himself as a merchant, and with a 
company of 3000 men of might, he took with him many 
valuable jewels, under the pretext, as he gave out, of 
offering them {to the Icing), 

^ Rubruquis calls the Kirais, Crit^ ing to Howorth, were a Turkish race, 
vide also Crindle's Ptolemy (Indian descended from the Uighurs. Ind. 
Antiq.), p. 400. The Kirais, accord- Antiq. Nov. 1880, p. 276. 

1 82 THU LIFE OP BWEN-TSIANG, [book y. 

The kiDg, who was of a covetous disposition, was over- 
joyed when he heard the news, and sent some messengers 
to escort him on the way. 

But the king of Himatala, who was of a disposition 
fierce and hanghty, and dignified in his carriage like a god, 
when he arrived at the throne of the king, took off his 
bonnet and denounced him. The Kritya king seeing him 
thus, was terrified, and forthwith in rising fell to the ground. 

The king of Himatala cut off his head which he had 
seized, and then addressed the body of his ministers and 
said : " I am the king of Himatala ; bearing in mind that 
you slaves had destroyed the law of Buddha I have come 
to punish you. But as the fault lies with one man, it 
would be wrong to involve you in it. You may therefore 
rest in peace ; I shall, however, banish the chief of those 
who incited the king to his wicked conduct to a distant 
land ; as to the rest I exact nothing." Having exterminated 
the odious race, he founded a Sanghar^ma, and assembling 
the priests he. gave it to them, and returned. 

The Bhikshu before alluded to who had gone to India, 
hearing that his country was restored to quiet, began to 
return there, staff in hand. On the way he encountered 
a herd of trumpeting elephants approaching him. The 
Bhikshu, when he saw them, climbed into a tree to hide 
himself. The elephants forthwith began to pour water on 
the tree from their trunks, and then with their tusks they 
underdug it, and after a while it fell. The elephants 
then lifted the Bhikshu on the back of one of the herd 
with their trunks, and went off with him. 

They arrived at the middle of a great wood, where there 
was a sick elephant suffering from a wound and lying 
on the ground. 

The elephant then drew the hand of the Bhikshu to touch 
the place of his suffering. Looking at the swollen part 
he saw that a bamboo splinter had pierced it — drawing this 
out he washed away the blood, and tearing up his robe, he 
bound up the wound, so that the elephant got gradual ease. 


Next morning the herd all went away to seek for 
fruits, which, when found, they respectfully offered to 
the Bhikshu. The Bhikshu having eaten thereof, an 
elephant with a golden casket came to the wounded 
elephant and offered it. to him. This one, having received 
it, offered it to the Bhikshu. The Bhikshu having taken 
it, all the herd took him out of the wood to the original 
spot where they found him, and placing him on the 
ground, paid lowly reverence, and departed. 

The Bhikshu opening the casket, lo ! there was the 
tooth of Buddha. Taking it back (to his countri/), he 
devoted himself to its worship (culture). 

In recent times SilMitya-r^ja, hearing that Ka^mir 
possessed a tooth of Buddha, coming in person to the 
chief frontier, asked permission to see and worship it. 
The congregation, from a feeling of sordid avarice, were 
unwilling to consent to this request, and so took the relic 
and concealed it. But the king fearing the exalted 
character of Slladitya, set about digging here and there 
till he found the relic, and having found it, presented it 
to the king. SilMitya seeing it was overpowered with 
reverence, and exercising force, carried it off to pay it 
religious offerings. This is the tooth spoken of. 

After breaking up the assembly the king handed over 
to the Sanghi^rama the golden image he had cast, and the 
garments and money, warning the priests to take care of 

The Master of the Law, first taking leave of the priests 
from the Nil and a convent, having taken his books and 
images, on the 19th day, the conference being ended, paid 
his respects to the king with a view to his departure home. 

The king said : " Your disciple, succeeding to the 
royal authority, has been lord of India for thirty years 
and more : I have constantly regretted the small increase 
to my religious merit, resulting from a want of previous 
good deeds. In consequence of this I have accumulated 


every kind of treasure and precious substance in the 
kingdom of Pray^ga, and between the banks of the two 
rivers/ I have established a great religious convocation 
every five years, to attend which all the Sramans and 
Brahmans of the five Indies are invited, and besides these 
the poor and the orphans and the destitute; on this 
occasion during seventy- five days the great distribution of 
alms called the Moksha is attended to; I have completed 
five of these assemblies and am now about to celebrate the 
sixth : why does not the Master delay his departure till 
then, and so, by witnessing the spectacle, rejoice with us ? " 

The Master answered, " Bodhisattva by meritorious 
conduct and by wisdom prepared himself (for enlighten^ 
ment) ; the wise man having obtained the fruit (of his 
conduct), does not forget the root (of his happiness); if 
your Majesty does not grudge his treasure for the good of 
others, how can Hiuen-Tsiang grudge a short delay (in 
his departure). I ask leave, therefore, to accompany your 
Majesty on your journey." 

The king hearing this was delighted, and on the 
twenty-first day he went forward, conducting him to the 
kingdom of Po-lo-ye-kia (Pray&ga), and proceeded to the 
great- distribution arena. This was bounded on the north by 
the Ganges (King-Jcia), and on the south by the Jnmnk (Yen- 
mio-na). These two rivers coming from the north-west 
and flowing eastward, unite their stream in this kingdom. 

On the west of the place of junction of the two rivers 
there is a great plain some fourteen or fifteen li in 
circuit. It is flat and even like a mirror. From days 
of old the various kings have frequented this spot for the 
purpose of practising charity : and hence the name given 
to it, the ^' Arena of Charitable Offerings'' There is a 
tradition which says that it is more advantageous to give 
one mite in charity in this place than a thousand in any 
other place : and therefore from old times this place has 
been held in honour. 

1 i.e., the Jumn^ and Ganges. 


The king directed them to portion out on this space a 
square enclosure for distributing the charitable offerings, 
enclosed by a bamboo hedge 1000 paces each side, and in 
the middle to erect many scores of thatched buildings in 
which to deposit all the treasures (intended for distribu- 
tion) ; to wit, gold, silver, fine pearls, red glass, the 
precious substance called the Ti-tsing-chu (the Indranila 
pearl), the Ta-tsing-chu (the Mah^nila pearl), &c. He 
constructed, moreover, by the side of these, several 
hundred store-houses (long buildings) in which to place 
the silk and cotton garments, the gold and silver money, 
and so on. 

Outside the enclosing hedge, he caused to be made 
places for partaking of food. In front of the various 
depositoricwS for treasure, he, moreover, erected some 
hundred or so long buildings arranged like the market- 
places of our capital, in which some thousand people 
might sit down for rest. 

Some time before these preparations the king had 
summoned by decree, through the ^ve Indies, the Sramans, 
heretics, Nirgranthas, the poor, the orphans, and the 
solitary {bereaved)^ to come together to the Arena of 
Charity, to receive the prepared gifts. 

As the Master of the Law had not yet returned from 
the assembly at Kany^kubja, he now hastened to the 
place of the distribution of charity. The kings of 
eighteen kingdoms, moreover, followed in the suite of 
the royal monarch with a like purpose. Arrived at the 
spot they found a body of people amounting to 500,000, 
or so, already arrived. 

Siiaditya-raja pitched his tent on the north bank of 
the Ganges. The king of South India, Tu-lu-po-pa-cha 
(Bhruvabatta or Dhruvabhata), located himself on the 
west of the junction of the rivers. KumS,ra-raja occupied 
the south side of the river Jumn^, by the side of a 
flowering grove. All the recipients of bounty occupied the 
ground to the west of the position of Bhruvabatta raja. 


On the morrow morning the military followers of 
Siladitya-raja, and of Kum^ra-r^ja, embarked in ships, 
and the attendants of Dhruvabatta-raja mounted their 
elephants, and so^ arranged in an imposing order, they 
proceeded to the place of the appointed assembly. The 
kings of the eighteen countries joined the cortege accord- 
ing to arrangement. 

On the first day of the first period, they installed the 
image of Buddha within one of the thatched buildings 
on the field of charity. They then distributed precious 
articles of the first quality, and clothing of the same 
character, and offered exquisite meats, whilst they scattered 
flowers to the sound of music. At the close of the day 
they retired to their tents. 

The second day they installed the image of Aditya-deva, 
and distributed precious things and clothing in charity, to 
half the amount of the previous day. 

The third day they installed the image of Isvara-deva, 
and distributed gifts as on the day before. 

On the fourth day they gave gifts to 10,000 of the 
religious community, arranged in a hundred ranks. Each 
received 100 pieces of gold, one pearl, one cotton gar- 
ment, various drinks and meats; flowers and perfumes. 
After the distribution they retired. 

The fifth arrangement was the bestowal of gifts to 
the Brahmans, which lasted for twenty days. 

The sixth turn related to the heretics, which lasted 
ten days. 

The next occasion was the bestowal of alms on those 
who came from distant spots to ask for charity : this 
lasted for ten days. 

The eighth distribution was to the poor and the 
orphans and destitute, which occupied a month. 

By this time the accumulation of five years was 
exhausted. Except the horses, elephants, and military 
accoutrements which were necessary for maintaining order 
and protecting the royal estate, nothing remained. Be- 


sides these the king freely gave away his gems and goods, 
his clothing and necklaces, ear-rings, bracelets, chaplets, 
neck -jewel and bright head-jewel, all these he freely gave 
without stint. 

All being given away, he begged from his sister an 
ordinary second-hand garment, and having put it on 
he paid worship to the Buddhas of the ten regions, and 
as he exulted with joy with his hands closed in adora- 
tion, he said : " In amassing all this wealth and treasure 
I ever feared that it was not safely stored in a strong 
place; but now having bestowed this treasure in the 
field of religious merit, I can safely say it is well bestowed. 
Oh that I (Sildditya) may in all my future births ever 
thus religiously give in charity to mankind my stores of 
wealth, and thus complete in myself the ten independent 
powers (dasahalas) [of a Buddha].'' 

The two magnificent convocations being finished the 
kings severally distributed among the people their money 
and treasure for the purpose of redeeming the royal 
necklaces, hair-jewels, court vestments, &c.^ and then 
taking them, restored them to the king ; and then after 
a few days these same things were again given away in 
charity, as before. 

But now the Master of the Law requested the king 
to let him return home, as he desired. 

The king replied : " Your humble disciple, in common 
with yourself, desires to spread far and wide the knowledge 
of the bequeathed law of Buddha ; why then do you so 
hastily return home ? " 

On this he remained yet another ten days. 

Kumara-raja also was courteously affected towards him, 
and addressed the Master thus : " If the Master is able to 
dwell in my dominions and receive my religious offerings, 


I will undertake to found one hundred monasteries on 
the Master's behalf." 

Hiuen-Tsiang, perceiving that the kings' purpose was 
not to let him go, afflicted with grief, addressed them as 
follows : " The country of China is very far from this, 
and has but recently heard of the law of Buddha. 
Although it has received a general knowledge of the 
truth, yet it has not accepted it in its entirety. On this 
account therefore have I come to inform myself how to 
put an end to differences. And now having completed 
my aim, (/ remember) how the learned men of my country 
are longing to fathom to their depth the points T have 
ascertained. Therefore I dare not delay a moment, re- 
membering the words of the Sutra: — 'Whoever hinders 
men from a knowledge of religion shall, for generation 
after generation, be born blind ; ' — if then you hinder 
my return you will cause countless disciples to lose the 
benefit resulting from a knowledge of the law ; how then 
will you escape the dread of being deprived of sight ? " 

The king replied : " Your humble disciple admires and 
values the virtue of the Master ; and I would ever look 
up to and serve him; but to stand in the way of the 
benefit of so many men would truly cause my heart to 
be filled with fear : I leave the Master to his choice, to 
go, or to stay ; but I know not, if you prefer to go, 
by what route you propose to return ; if you select the 
Southern Sea route ^ then I will send official attendants 
to accompany you." 

The Master i eplied : " AYhen I left China and arrived 
at the western limits of the country, I reached a territory 
called Kau-chang; the king of this place was an en- 
lightened man and passionately attached to the Law. 
When he saw me, in my search after the truth, come to 
his kingdom, he was filled with profound joy, and freely 

1 That is, by way of Java, or Sumatra. 


provided me with every necessary, praying me on my 
return to visit him once more ; my heart is unable to 
forego this duty ; I will therefore return by the Northern 

The king answered, " I pray you, then, let me know 
what provisions you stand in need of." 

The Master replied : " I require nothing/* 
The king said, " It is impossible to permit you to go 

On this the king ordered them to offer him gold coins 
and other things; Kum&ra-r§.ja also bestowed on him 
every sort of valuable. But the Master would take none 
of them, except from Kum^ra-rSja he accepted a cape 
called ho-la-li (H^ri ?), made of coarse skin lined with 
soft down, which was designed to protect from rain 
whilst on the road. 

Thus he took his departure. The king with a large 
body of attendants accompanied him for several ten lis, 
and then returned. On their final separation they could 
none of them restrain their tears and sad lamentations. 

As for his books and images, the Master confided them 
to the military escort of a king of North India called 
Udhita, to be carried on horseback, but the advance being 
slow King SilMitya afterwards attached to the escort of 
Udhita-rSja a great elephant, with 3000 gold pieces and 
10,000 silver pieces, for defraying the Master's expenses 
on the road. 

Three days after separation the king, in company 
with Kum^ra-rSja and Dhruvabatta-r^ja, took several 
hundred light horsemen and again came to accompany 
him for a time and to take final leave, so kindly disposed 
were the kings to the Master. Then he commissioned 
four Ta-kwan (official guides) to accompany the escort : 
they call such officers Mo-ho-ta-lo (MahMras?) The 


king also wrote some letters on fine white cotton stuff 
and sealed tliem with red wax (or, composition), which he 
ordered the Ta-hwan officers to present in all the countries 
through which they conducted the Master, to the end that 
the princes of these countries might provide carriages or 
modes of conveyance to escort the Master even to the 
borders of China. 

From the country of Pray^ga he went south-west, 
through a great desert waste for seven days, when he 
arrived at the kingdom of Kausambl. To the south of 
the city is the place where the lord Goshira presented 
a garden to Buddha. 

Having adored the sacred traces again, he proceeded 
with Udhita-raja north-west for one month and some 
days, passing through various countries. Once more he 
paid adoration to the sacred traces of the heavenly 
ladder, and then proceeding north-west three yojanas, he 
came to the capital of the country of Pi-lo-na-na (Vira- 
shana).-^ Here he halted two months, during which time 
he met with two fellow students, Simhaprabha and Simha- 
chandra, who discoursed with him on the Kosha-sam- 
parigraha-Sastra, the Yidya-matra-siddha-s&,stra, &c. He 
was met and escorted ' by all the people with great 

When the Master of the Law had arrived, he took 
up his discourse on the Yoga-^S.stra-karika, and the 
Abhidharma-^astra. At the end of the two months 
he took his leave of them, and continued on a north- 
western route for one month and some days. Passing 
through various countries, he arrived at the kingdom 
of Che-lan-ta {Jdlandhara), the royal city of North India. 
Here he halted one month. 

Udhita-r^ja now sent with him an escort, with which, 
proceeding to the west for twenty days or so, he came 

1 Vide Records^ vol. i. p. 201, n. 107. 


to the country of Simhapura. At this time there were 
about 100 priests belonging to the North, who were in 
charge of sacred books, images, &c. ; these, relying on the 
escort accompanying the Master of the Law, returned in 
his company. And so they went on for about twenty 
days through mountain defiles. These spots being much 
frequented by robbers, the Master of the Law feared 
they might be spoiled in an encounter with them, and 
so made a rule to send on a brother in front, who if 
he met any robbers, was told to say, ''We have come 
from a long distance searching for the Law, and now 
we are carrying with us nothing but the sacred books 
of our religion, and images and holy relics. We pray 
you, therefore, to be our patrons (ddnapatis), and protect 
us without exhibiting a hostile mind." The Master of 
the Law with his companions and followers brought up 
the rear. By these means they escaped any harm from 
the brigands whom they encountered. 

Thus travelling on for about twenty days, they reached 
the country of Taksba^il^, where the Master again did 
reverence to the spot where Chandraprabha-r^ja gave 
for a thousand times his head in charity. 

To the north-east of this country fifty yojanas^ is the 
kingdom of Kasmir. 

The king of this country sent messengers to invite the 
Master of the Law to come to him, but on account of -the 
heavily laden elephants, he was unable to go. 

After a delay of seven days, he again set forward in 
a north-westerly direction, and after- three days, reached 
the great river Sindhu. This river is fiYe or six li wide. 
The books, images, and fellow travellers were embarked 
on board a boat for the passage across, but the Master 
of the Law crossed the stream mounted on an elephant. 

He had deputed one man to accompany the boat for 
the purpose of looking after and protecting the books and 
all the different flower-seeds of India. And now when 
the boat was in the mid-stream, all at once the winds 


and the waters commingling, caused the waves to rise, 
and the boat, violently tossed, was almost swallowed up. 
The guardian of the books, filled with terror, fell into the 
water, but was finally rescued by the passengers; but 
there were lost fifty manuscript copies of Sutras, and 
the flower seeds of various sorts. With these exceptions, 
all else they managed to save. 

At this time the king of Kapi^a, who formerly dwelt 
in the town of U-to-kia-han-ch*a (Utakh^nda), hearing that 
the Master of the Law had come, himself went to the 
river-side to pay his respects and escort him. Then he 
said : " I have heard that the Master has lost many sacred 
books in the middle of the river. Did you not bring 
with you here from India flower-seeds and fruit ? " 

"I did so," he replied. 

" That is the sole reason," the king said, " of the storm 
that damaged the boat. It has been so from days of old 
till now, whoever attempts to cross the river with seeds 
of flowers is subject to similar misfortunes." 

The Master then returned to the city with the king, 
and took up his abode in a temple-convent for fifty days 
or so. In consequence of losing his copies of the Sutras, 
he despatched certain persons to the country of Udy^na, 
for the purpose of copying out the Tripitaka of the Kasya- 
piya school. 

The king of Kasmir, hearing that the Master was 
gradually nearing his kingdom, in spite of the distance, 
came in person to pay his respects, and, after some days, 

The Master of the Law, in company with the king of 
Kapi^a, proceeding for a month in a north-west direction, 
came to the frontiers of the country of Lan-po (Zamghdn), 

The king sent his son, the heir to his throne, in ad- 


vance, to direct the people of the capital and the body 
of priests to prepare flags and banners, and with them to 
march from the city to escort (the cavalcade back to the 

And now the king and the Master of the Law gradu- 
ally approached — and on their arrival they found several 
thousands of clerics and lay people with flags and banners, 
a vast concourse, awaiting them. 

The people, on seeing the Master of the Law, were 
overjoyed, and paid him reverence, after which they went 
before him and in the rear, surrounding him as they 
advanced, sounding his praises. Arrived at the capital 
they lodged in a temple of the Great Vehicle. At this 
time the king held a great assembly for bestowing charity 
(Ifoksha-mahdddna), during seventy-five days. 

Once more, going right south for fifteen days, he halted 
in the country of Fa-la-na (Varana) for the purpose of 
adoring the sacred traces. 

Again, going north-west, he stopped in the kingdom of 
O-po-kin (Avakan). Again, advancing to the north-west, 
he stopped in the country of Tsau-hit-ch^a (Tsaukuta). 

Again, going north 500 li, he reached the country 
of Fo-li-shi, and the country of Sa-tang-na (perhaps a 
mistake for Fo-loshisa-tang-ha, i.e. Vardasthdna), From 
this, going east, they emerged on the frontiers of Kapisa. 
Here the king again held a great assembly for distributing 
gifts during seven days, after which the Master of the 
Law requested to be allowed to take his leave and advance 
homewards. Going north-east one yojana they came to 
Ku-lu-sa-pang (Krosapam ?) ; here he separated from the 
king and proceeded northward. 

The king sent with him a great officer, accompanied 



by a hundred men, as an escorfc, whilst he crossed the 
Snowy Mountains, and to convey fuel, provisions, and 
other requisites for the journey, which the king provided. 

After seven days they reached a great mountain top ; 
this mountain is marked by its sharp-pointed peaks and 
dangerous crags, which mount upwards in different and 
strange forms. Now and then there is a flat surface, and 
then a high sharp peak ; there is no uniformity. It 
would be impossible to narrate the difficulties and 
fatigues to which they were exposed in crossing these 

From this point they were no longer able to ride on 
horseback : the Master therefore advanced, supported by 
his staffi 

After seven days more they came to a lofty mountain 
pass at the foot of which there was a village of about 
1 00 houses. The people feed flocks of sheep which are 
as large as asses. Here they stopped for the day and 
set off again at midnight, having induced a villager to 
precede them on a mountain camel as a guide. 

In this land there are numerous snow-drifts and 
glaciers (crevasses). If travellers do not carefully follow 
the steps of their guide, there is great danger of falling 
and perishing. 

They went on thus from dawn till sunset crossing these 
frozen peaks. At this time the company consisted only 
of seven priests, twenty followers, one elephant, and ten 
asses, and four horses. 

On the morrow they reached the bottom of the pass. 
Tracing their way through a tortuous road they now 
directed their march towards a ridge which seemed as if 
covered with snow, but when they got to it they found 
nothing but white stones. This ridge is very high, so 
that, although cloud-wrapped, the flying snow does not 
reach its summit. It was towards sundown when they 
got to the mountain top, but the freezing wind was so 


icy cold, tbat not one of the travellers dared pause on the 

This mountain affords no trace of vegetation, but only 
stones heaped up in confusion, and peaks and slender 
pinnacles, like a forest of trees devoid of leaves. Beyond 
this spot the mountain is so high, that when the wind 
suddenly rises the birds on wing cannot pass it in their 
flight. From the south of the ridge to the north of the 
ridge, there is a distance of several hundred paces — this 
passed, then one can find a little ease. 

Throughout Jambudvipa we shall not find among the 
mountain peaks, a higher one than this. 

The Master of the Law having descended some li to 
the north-west, found a small level space where he spread 
his tent for the night. In the morning he again advanced, 
and after descending the mountain for five or six days 
he came to the country called An-ta-lo-fo-po (Antarava, 
Andarab) ; this country is the old territory of Tu-ho-lo 

There are here three Sangharg^mas and some scores 
of priests. They belong to the Mah^saiighika school. 
There is one Stiipa built by Aloka-r^ja. 

The Master stopped here five days, and then going 
north-west four hundred li or so, still descending the 
mountain, he reached the country of Kwoh-seh-to (Khost), 
which again formed a part of the old territory of Tu-ho- 
lo (Tukhara).2 

Proceeding north-west from this place, and still 
continuing along the mountains for 300 li or so, he 
reached the kingdom of Hwoh (Kunduz) which lies along 

1 Cf. Records^ ii. 286. 

2 Or, the old 7\iranian territory ; cf . Records, i. p. 37, n» 121. 


the side of the Oxus river (Fo-tsu) ; this is the easterJi 
boundary of Tukh^ra. The capital is situated on the 
southern ^ bank of the river. 

The Master, because he saw that the nephew of She- 
hu-khan, was ruling over TukhS,ra, calling himself She- 
hu (i.e. chieftain), he repaired to his encampment and 
remained there one month. The She-hu having sent a 
guard of soldiers to accompany him, he, and the merchants 
in his train, went to the east two days and arrived at 
Mung-kin {Mimjan). Connected with this territory is 
the country of 0-li-ni (Ahreng), the country of Ho-lo-hu 
(Eoh), the country of Ki-li-sse-mo {Krishma, or, Kishm), 
the country of Po-li-ho (Parika) ; all these countries 
formed a part of the old territory of Tukh^ra. 

Again going east from Mung-Kien^ entering the 
mountains and travelling for 300 li or so — we come to 
the country of Hi-mo-ta-lo (Himatala) ; this also was a 
part of the old Tukhara territory. The habits of the 
people are in general like those of the Tuh-kiuch (Turks). 
There is one difference, however, which is, that the 
married women wear in their head-dress a wooden horn 
about three feet high. It has a division in front signi- 
fying the father and the mother of the husband. The 
higher division signifies the father — the lower, the mother 
— and as either of them dies the division (or branch) 
corresponding to that one, is removed; when both are 
dead, then the horn is entirely removed. 

From this, again going eastward 200 li or so, they 
arrived at Po-to-na (for, Po-to-chang-na) [BadakshS,n], 
which also was a part of the old TukhS^ra territory. 
Here they remained, on account of the frost and snow, for 
a month and some days. 

Again going south-east through the mountains about 

1 Julien has *'the eastern bank," 


200 li, they arrived at the kingdom of Ki-po-kin 
(Yamg^n). ! 

Still going south-east through a mountaiuous and pre- 
cipitous district for 300 li, they arrived at the kingdom 
of Kit-lang-na (KurS,n). 

Going north-east from this, across the mountains, for 
500 li or so, they came to the country of Ta-mO'Si-tie-ti^ 
(Tamasthiti). This country is placed between two 
mountains bordering on the Oxus. It produces excellent 
(shen) horses, small in growth but very strong. Tiie 
people have no manners, and are of a passionate tempera- 
ment and unseemly appearance. Their eyes are chiefly of 
a bluish- green tint,^ different from all other people. There 
are ten Sangharamas here. The capital of the country ^ is 
named Rwdn-fo-to, in which there is a Sanghar^ma which 
a former king of this country built. In this Sangharama 
is a stone figure of Buddha, above which is a gilded 
copper circlet, ornamented with various gems ; it hangs 
unsupported over the head of Buddha, and when men 
worship the image and invest it, the canopy also moves 
with them, and when they stop, it stops. No one can 
explain this spiritual prodigy.^ 

North from this country, across some great mountains, 
there is the country of Shi-kH-ni (Shikhnan).^ 

Again crossing from Ta-mosi'tie-U we come to the 
country of Shang-mi (Sambhi). 

From this country, again going east across mountains 
700 liy we reach the valley of Pamir. This valley is 
about 1000 li from east to west, and 100 li or so from 
north to south. It lies between two ranges of the Snowy 
Mountains. Moreover, this valley lies as it were in the 

1 CaHed also Hu-mi. — Ch. Ed. thafe of M. Julien was redundant, cf. 

2 Like the pih stone, the colour of Julien, p. 270. 

the deep sea. ^ Vide Mecords, ii. 295. 

3 Either my text is defective or ^ This passage is wrongly placed in 

the French translation. 

t9§ fUE LIFE OP BWUN-TSIANG, [book v. 

midst of the T'sung-Ling Mountains, so that the wind and 
snow tempests fly to and fro during the spring and 
summer incessantly. The soil is always frozen, vegeta- 
tion is scanty and rare, the seeds sown do not fructify, 
the whole district is desert and without inhabitants. 

In the middle of this valley is a great lake, 200 li 
from east to west, and fifty li from north to south. It 
lies in the centre of Jambudvlpa, at an immense height. 
Eegarding its watery expanse it extends beyond range of 
sight. The animals that dwell in it are of infinite 
variety ; the noise of their ten thousand cries is like the 
tumult of a hundred workshops. 

We see here, moreover, birds ten feet or so in height ; 
eggs as large as a round water-jar, probably the same as 
were formerly called the Ku-koh (big shells) ^ of the 
Tajiks (Tiu-chi), 

From the western division of the lake proceeds a river, 
which, flowing to the west, reaches the eastern frontier of 
Ta-mO'Si'ti where it unites with the Oxus, and flowing 
westward, enters the sea. All the rivers on the right, 
moreover, unite together in the same way. 

From the eastern division of the lake a great river 
proceeds in the direction of the Kie-sha country (Kasli- 
gar), and on its western frontier unites with the Sita 
river, and flowing to the east enters the sea. All the 
streams on the left, likewise, unite in the same way. 

Beyond the mountains which are to the south of the 
valley is the country of Fo-lu-lo (Bolor) where there is 
much gold and silver; the gold is the colour of fire. This 
lake, moreover, is one with the Anavatapta lake, in its 
north and south direction. 

Proceeding from the eastern side of this valley, 
scrambling over crags and precipices, and along roads 

^ That is, the egg-shell; probably of the ostrich. 


covered with snow for 500 U, they then reached the 
kingdom of ICie-p'an'to} The chief town of this country 
is flanked hy a high mountain peak, whilst on the north 
it is backed by the Sit& river. This river on the east 
enters the sea. Passing through the salt lake (Lake 
Lob) it flows underground, and emerging at the Tsih-shi 
mountain, it is the origin of our (Yellow) river. 

The king of this country, from whom a long succession 
of rulers arose, was remarkable for his wisdom ; it is 
said (or, he professed) that he took his origin from Ghina- 
dSva-gotra (i,e, the offspring of the God of China). In 
the old palace of the king there is the Safigharania of 
the old Master Kum§,rajiva : ^ this Master was a man of 
the Takshasila country. He was of great spiritual dis- 
cernment and brilliant reputation. Each day he repeated 
32,000 words and also wrote others down. He delighted 
in pursuing his religious studies, he was elegant in com- 
position, and was the author of many scores of Sdstras, 
which gained a wide-spread renown. He was the first 
master of the S^utr^ntika school. 

At this time Asvaghosha flourished in the East, Deva 
in the South, Nagarjuna in the West, Kum^rajiva ^ in the 
North ; these were called the four suns, able to enlighten 
all that lives. The renown of Kumaralabdha had reached 
such a height that a former king himself attacked his 
country (TaJcshasild) that he might honour and cherish 

South-east of the city 300 li or so, there is a great 
(rock like a) stone wall with two stone chambers in it, 
in each of which there is an Arhat sitting in a profound 
(extinct) state of ecstasy ; each of them sits upright and 
without movement: they look extremely emaciated, but 

1 For some remarks on this name, 2 poj. kumaralabdha. 
Vide Eecord€j ii. 298. ^ Eead Kuma,ralabdha. 

200 THE LIFE OF HIUEN-TStANG. [i^ook t. 

without any appearance of bodily decay, although 700 
years and more have passed (since they arrived at that 

The Master of the Law remained in this country for 
twenty days or so, and then going north-east for five 
days he fell in with a band of robbers; the merchants, 
his companions, were panic-stricken and made for the 
mountains ; the elephants being driven about in the pur- 
suit, were engulfed in the water and perished. 

The robbers having passed by, they all proceeded 
slowly to the eastward, over crags and across mountain 
gorges, desceudiug the heights and patiently enduring 
the cold. After 800 li they emerged from the T'sung- 
ling mountains and reached the kingdom of U-sha (Och). 

To the westward of the capital about 200 li there is 
a great mountain covered with crags and precipices ; on 
the top of a very high peak is a Stupa. The old story 
goes, that many hundred years ago, the thunder having 
shivered a mountain, in the midst of one of the denuded 
crags there was seen the body of a Bbikshu of an extra- 
ordinary size, who sat there with closed eyes, and his 
matted hair descending over his shoulders and his face. 
Some woodcutters having seen the sight, went and told 
the king ; he went in person to witness it and to offer 
his adorations. 

The news being spread abroad the people from far 
and near flocked together, all intent on offering him their 
religious devotions and heaping up flowers. After this 
was done, the king said : '' What man is this ? " 

A certain Bhikshu answered and said: "This is an 
Arhat who, having left liis family, entered on (a condition 
of) complete ecstasy. Since this occurred many years 
liave elapsed, and therefore his hair has grown to such a 

The king replied : " If you know how, cause him to 
arouse himself." 


In reply he said : " In the case of one who has long 
gone without food, when he awakes from his ecstasy his 
body would decay, so that first you must anoint him 
with cream, which being rubbed into his body will lubricate 
and soften his muscles ; then afterwards you must sound 
the ghantd (a metal gong) : when he is stirred up and 
awakened he will perhaps rise up {from Ms seat).'' 

The king answered : ** Well spoken ! " and according to 
the directions he anointed him with cream and then 
sounded the ghantd. 

The Arhat, then opening his eyes and looking around 
him, said : '' What sort of men are you, clothed with 
religious vestments ? " 

They replied : " We are Bhikshus." 

He answered : " Where now dwells my master Ka^- 
yapa Tath^gata ? " 

Again they said : " He has passed into Nirvana/' 

Hearing this he uttered a cry, and then rejoined : 
" Has Sakya-Muni yet accomplished ' the unequalled„ 
condition of perfect enlightenment ' ? '' {i.e. become a 

" Yes," they said, " and having procured benefit to the 
world, he too has passed into Nirvana." 

Having heard this he lowered his eyelids, and after 
a time, having with his hand raised his locks, he ascended 
from his place into the air and by his great spiritual 
power having caused his body to consume itself with fire, 
which appeared at his will, his bones fell to the ground 
as his bequeathed relics. 

The king and the great congregation collected the 

:^o2 THE LIFE OP MlUEN-TSlAMG. [book \^. 

bones, and raised over them a Stiipa — and this is the 
one we are noticing. 

Going north from this place 500 U or so, we come to 
the country of Kie-sha (Kashgar).-^ 

Going south-east from this place 500 li or so, and 
crossing the Sita river, they passed over a great mountain 
range and reached the kingdom of Gha-km-Jcia (Yar- 
kiang ?). 

To the south of tins country there is a high mountain 
in which there are a number of niches like chambers ; 
many men of India who have arrived at the fruit (of 
Bodhi) by their spiritual power, transport themselves here 
to rest in peace, and a great many of these who have 
died here {obtained Nirvdna), 

At present there are three Arhats who dwell in a 
mountain cavern here, and have entered into the ecstasy 
of complete forgetfulness. As their hair and beards 
gradually grow longer, the priests from time to time go 
to the spot to cut them. 

In this country are many Sutras of the Great Vehicle ; 
vthis literature includes many tens of works amounting to 
100,000 slokas.^ 

Going east from this 800 li or so, we come to the 
country of Kustana (Khotan). This district is a great flat 
covered with sand and stones. The soil, however, is fit 
for the cultivation of cereals and is very productive. They 
manufacture carpets {rugs) from wool, fine haircloth, 
and silken taffeta ; the soil produces much white jade 
and dark jade. The climate is temperate, and the 

1 The old name was Su-li {Syr ?) 2 jt would seem from this (as I have 

and so the city was called. The remarked elsewhere) that the Great 

right sound, however, was Shi-li-M-li- Vehicle system found its way into 

to-ti (^rihrit^ti ?) ; the way of writing India, from Baktria. 
it — Su-li, so commonly adopted — is 
wrong — Ch. Ed, 

teooK v.] KUSTANA. 20 j 

common people miderstand politeness and right principles ; 
they esteem learning and are fond of music. They are 
upright in their conduct and truthful, and in these 
respects differ from other Tartar tribes (Hti), Their 
literature (letters) resembles that of India with some 
slight differences. They greatly esteem the law of 

There are 100 monasteries here and about 5000 
priests. They mostly study the Great Vehicle. The 
king is a polished and learned man, brave and versed in 
the arts of war. He is well affected towards virtuous 
people. He professes to be descended from Fi-sha-man 

The great ancestor of the king was the eldest son of 
Asoka-raja, who dwelt in Takshasill Afterwards, being 
banished from the kingdom, he-^ went forth to the north 
of the Snowy Mountains. As he went looking for grass 
and water for his herds, he came to this place and built 
his chief residence here. 

After a while, because he had no son, he went to 
worship in the Temple of Vaisravana Deva. The forehead 
of the god bursting open in front there came forth a 
male child, and the ground, fronting the temple, at the 
same time produced a wonderfully sweet-scented (sub- 
stance like milk from the) breast ; taking this for the 
nourishment of the child he grew up to maturity. 

At the king's death he mounted the throne and 
established his rule in righteousness, and brought many 
countries under his power. The present king is his 
descendant. As his ancestor had been nourished by a 
breast of the earth, the name of U-tien (for Ktistana) 
was given to it, meaning an earth-pap.^ 

^ Or, should it not be, ^/le?/, i.e. the called from "mother earth." In 

accusers of the royal prince? fact, the entire account both here, 

2 Pausanias also speaks of a fountain and in Fa-hien, of the character of 

near which is a stone, mammis mulie- the Khotan people and their civilisa- 

bribus .per simile^ p. 778. I have tion, seems to point to a non-Indian 

often thought that the celebrated origin. 
Gomati Temple at Khotan was so 

204 THE LIFE OP HlVEN-TStANO. [book V. 

Wlien the Master of the Law entered the frontiers of 
this kingdom, he came to the city of Po-lda-i (Bhagpa ?). 
In this is a sitting figure of Buddha about seven feet 
high ; on its head is a precious jewel- crown, and its 
appearance is perfect and complete {for majesty). The 
old people gave the following account of it. 

The image originally belonged to Kasmir, and came to 
this place by invitation. 

There was formerly an Arhat who had a Sramanera 
{as a disciple) whose body was afflicted with leprosy. 
When he was near death he desired to have a cake of 
tsoh-mai (sour meal ?). His master by means of his 
divine sight saw that such food could be got in Kustana. 
Accordingly he transported himself there by his power 
of Irrdhi, and having begged some, returned and gave it 
to the Sramanera. Having eaten it he was filled with 
joy and desired to be born in that country. His earnest 
prayer could not be abortive, and so after his death he 
was born in the royal family. 

After he had come to the throne, being sharp-witted 
and brave, he purposed to make a foray and seize some 
neighbouring territory. Crossing the mountains therefore 
he attacked the old country of his birth. 

Tlie king of Kasmir accordingly chose his generals and 
marshalled his troops in order to repel the attack. 

And now the Arhat said : " Do not attempt to use 
force : I myself will go to him.'' 

Forthwith he went to the place where the king of 
Kustana was, and told him about the loss caused by the 
covetousness and violence of the head-born (Murdhaja) 
king ; and then he showed him the garment he had worn 
when in his former person he had been a Sramanera. 

The king seeing it, and arriving at a knowledge of his 
former condition, was deeply ashamed, and foi'thwith 
formed an alliance with the king of Kasmir, and re- 
nounced his purpose of conquest. Eeturning to his 
country, he was accompanied by (or, he received as a 


gttest) the image which he had formerly worshipped, and 
which now followed the army. When the image arrived 
at this spot it stood still and would go no farther. The 
king and all his army tried to move it forward by force, 
but it would not move. Accordingly the king raised 
above the image a little chapel, and invited the priests 
and their companions to come and worship it. More- 
over he placed on the head of Buddha (i.e. the image) 
his own much-valued and magnificent head-dress. This 
head-dress is still to be seen, and is of priceless value 
on account of the jewels; all beholders are filled with 
exultation at the sight. 

The Master of the Law remained here seven days. 

The king of Khotan hearing that the Master was 
entering his territories, went forth in his own person to 
meet him, and the following day he conducted him on 
his way. 

The king, arriving at his capital in advance, left his 
son to attend (the Master). 

After proceeding thus for two days the king further 
despatched an official guide (ta hwan) to conduct him on 
his onward way. 

When forty li from the town he rested for the night. 

The next day the king, with a number of clerics and 
laymen, taking with them sounding music, perfumes, and 
flowers, accompanied him along the road on the left side ; 
on his arrival he invited him to enter the city, and 
.located him in a temple of the Little Vehicle, belonging 
to the school of the Sarv4stivS,dins. 

About ten li to the south of the city, there is a large 
Sangh^rama which was built by a former king of this 
country in honour of Yairochana Arhat.^ 

Formerly, when this country had not yet received the 

^ For an original and compendious vide Rockhill, *' The Life of the 
account of the history of Khotan, Buddha,'''* cap. viii. 


benefit of the teaching of the Law, an Arhat came here 
from Ka^mir, and sat down in silent meditation in the 
midst of a forest. ■"• 

Some persons who saw him were frightened at his 
appearance and clothing. 

Having told the king about it, he came in person to 
examine his appearance. 

He then asked him who he was, living thus in the 
midst of a solitary wilderness. 

He answered : " I am a disciple of Tath^gata ; his law 
enjoins on me this solitary abode." 

The king replied: "When you speak of Tath^gata, 
whom do you mean ? " 

He answered and said : " Tath^gata is the distinctive 
title of Buddha. He was in former days the eldest son 
of Suddhodana-r^ja, his name being Sarv^rthasiddha ; 
moved by tenderness for " all flesh " engulfed in the sea 
of sorrow, without a teacher and without any refuge, he 
rejected the seven gems belonging to a Ghahravarttin, and 
the looo sons, and the sovereignty over the four con- 
tinents {qiiarters, or islands)^ and in the solitary forest 
earnestly sought after wisdom (Bodhi) ; having obtained 
the fruit of his six years' discipline, his body yellow as 
gold, he reached the law which is acquired without a 
Master. He scattered sweet dew {i.e,^ jpreached on the 
deathless condition of Nirvdna) in the garden of deer, 
and caused the brightness of the Mani-gem to shine on 
the summit of the Grhridrakuta {i.e,, declared the highest 
truth). For eighty years he published his doctrine for the 
profit and happiness (of all creatures). His connection 
with (conditioned) life being now broken, he peacefully 
passed away to the true condition of being, leaving his 
image and his body of doctrine as a perpetual legacy, and 
these still survive. 

1 The Tsu-la grove, op. cit., p. 237. The word in our text, however, may 
mean ^Hhe wilder ness,^^ 


" And now the king by his meritorious conduct in pre- 
vious states of life has established himself as a ruler of men ; 
he ought therefore to take charge of and enjoin obedience 
to, this religious system (wheel of the law), that those who 
understand its purport may find in it their salvation 
{refuge). But why are you so dumb, as though you 
heard me not ? " ^ 

The king replied : " My sins, accumulated and over- 
flowing, have prevented me from hearing the name of 
Buddha. But now, thanks to the downpouring virtue of 
the holy man, what remnant of merit I have, has accrued 
to my benefit. May I be allowed to adore his image and 
obey the doctrine he has bequeathed to the world ? " 

The Arhat replied : '' You must seek the joy of ful- 
filling your vows. First then build a SanghS-rama, then 
the divine image will of itself descend." 

On this the king returned, and with his various 
ministers having selected a suitable site, and having 
summoned his workmen, he asked the Arhat for a plan 
of the building to be raised. He then proceeded with 
the work. 

When the temple was finished, the king further 
inquired, "The Sangharama is completed, but where is 
the statue of Buddha ? '' 

He replied: "Let the king only seek the fullest 
assurance (insight) and the image will come forth- 

On this the king and all the great ministers and the 
gentry and people, lighting their incense and scattering 
fiowers, stood still in profound meditation ; in a moment 
the image of Buddha came down from space with its 

^ This may also be translated, if you turn a deaf ear to my (or, his) 
* What can be said (of your wisdom) words." 


precious dais, glittering and bright, and of a majestic 

The king seeing it, was filled with joy, and congratu- 
lated himself on his extreme good fortune. Moreover, 
he requested the Arhat to preach the Law for the benefit 
of the people. Then, because he instituted for the people 
(or, among the people) a festival of dedication, this Sang- 
harama is (remembered as) the very first foundation in 
the country. 

The Master of the Law, since he had previously lost 
his books in crossing the river, when he came here, 
immediately sent messengers to go to Kuchi and to 
Sic-li (Kashgar), to seek for others ; and now, notwith- 
standing his delay with the king of Khotan, as they had 
not obtained the books, he sent forward a young man 
of Kau-chang with a written memorial, desiring him to 
follow in the train of th^ merchants, and to present it at 
court, with the tidings that he who had formerly gone to 
the country of the Brahmans to seek for the Law, had 
now returned so far as Khotan. 

The memorial was couched in these words : " The 
words of the Sramana Hiuen-Tsiang : Hiuen has heard 
say of Ma-yung^ Ki-chen, and ChiThg-Htian^ that they 
were teachers of public morals : FiiJi-sing ^ was illustrious 
for his eminent talent: Cho-T'so^ himself {founded) the 
schools to the south of the Tsih. Here we see the 
character of these learned men. But if we admire these 
ancient masters for thus going afar in search (or, stipport 
of) learning, how much more those who search into the 
secret traces of the profit-bringing religion of the Buddhas, 
and the marvellous words of the three Pitakas, able to 
liberate from the snares of the world ? How can we dare 
to undervalue such labours, or not regard them with 

1 Vide Mayers' Manual, No. 479. ^ Qp. cit.^ No. 147. 

2 Op. cit,, No. 59. 4 Op. cit.f No. 97. 


ardour ? Now I, Hiuen-Tsiang, long since versed in the 
doctrine of Buddha, bequeathed by him in the Western 
world, the rules and precepts of which had reached the 
East in an imperfect form, always pondered on a plan 
for searching out the true learning, without any thought 
for personal safety. Accordingly, in the fourth month 
of the third year of the period Cheng-Kwan (630, A.D.), 
braving dangers and obstacles, I secretly found my way 
to India. I traversed over vast plains of shifting sand : 
I scaled precipitous mountain-crags clad with snow : 
found my way through the scarped passes of the iron 
gates ; passed along by the tumultuous waves of the 
hot sea. Beginning at the sacred city of Chang'an, I 
reached the new city of E&jagriha. 

"Thus I accomplished a journey of more than 50,000 

li; yet, notwithstanding the thousand differences of cus- 
toms and manners I have witnessed, the myriads of 
dangers I have encountered, by the goodness of Heaven 
I have returned without accident, and now offer my 
homage with a body unimpaired, and a mind satisfied 
with the accomplishment of my vows. I have beheld 
the Ghridrakuta Mountain, worshipped at the B6dhi 
tree : I have seen traces not seen before ; heard sacred 
words not heard before; witnessed spiritual prodigies, 
exceeding all the wonders of Nature ; have borne testi- 
mony to the high qualities of our august Emperor ; and 
won for him the high esteem and praise of the people. 
In my travels through successive kingdoms I have passed 
seventeen years, and now, having come from the country 
of PrayS;ga; passed through Kapi^a; surmounted the 
precipices of the T'sung-Ling, traversed the valley of 
Pamir, I have reached Khotan, 

" And now, because the great elephant (which I had) 
is perished in the waters, I have not yet succeeded in 
obtaining transport for the numerous books which I have 
brought back. On that account I have remained here a 


little while; but not having obtained (even here) the 
necessary mode of conveyance, I purpose at once to go 
forward and visit your majesty. With this view I have 
sent forward a layman belonging to Kau-Ohang, whose 
name is Ma-huan-chi, in the company of certain mer- 
chants, respectfully to present this letter, and to announce 
my purpose/' 

After this, during a day and a night, he explained to 
the priests of Khotan the principles of the Yoga, the 
Aihidharma, the Koska, and the Mahdydna-saTn/parigraha- 

The king with the clergy and lay-people all sought to 
do honour to his teaching, and many thousands embraced 
the faith daily. 

Seven or eight months having elapsed, the messenger 
returned with a gracious message from the king, to this 
effect : " When I heard that the Master who had gone 
to far-off countries to search for religious bqoks, had 
now come back, I was filled with joy without bounds. 
I pray you come quickly, that we may see each other. 
The priests of this kingdom who understand the Fan'^ 
language and the explanation of the sacred books, I have 
also commanded to come and pay you greeting. I have 
ordered the bureau:^ of Khotan ^ and other places to send 
with you the best guides they can procure, and convey- 
ances as many as you require. I have commanded the 
magistrates of Tun-wang to conduct you through the 
desert of shifting sands, and I have desired the Shen- 
Shen (government) to send to meet you at Tso-moh." 

1 The sacred language of India Ceylon, as written in the Fan lan- 
{Julien). But it cannot be confined giiage. Records, i., Ixxx.* 
to the ^ansmi^, as Mr. Alvvis supposes ^ From this, as Rockhill remarks, 
[Lecture ii. p. 50), because Fa-hieii {op. cit. p. 231, n.) we may gather 
speaks of the Buddhist books in that Khotan at this time was subject 

to the king of Kau-chang. 

* Unless indeed, as Mr. Foulkes seems to suppose, the books which Fa-hieu pi'o- 
CTU'ed in Ceylon wcx-e written in Sanscrit (vide Indian Antiq., May 1888, p. 124, c. i). 


The Master of the Law having respectfully received 
this letter of instructions, forthwith set forward. The king 
of Khotan provided him with a large store of provisions. 

Having gone 300 U or so from the capital, eastward, 
he reached the town of Pi-mo.^ In this city is a sandal- 
wood image of Buddha in a standing position. It is 
thirty feet high, and is of a grave and majestic appear- 
ance. It has great spiritual virtue, insomuch that men 
who are afflicted with any bodily hurt, if, according to the 
place so affected, they place some gold leaf on the corre- 
sponding part of the image, they are immediately restored. 
Those who pay their vows to this image and make request 
for any favour are mostly successful. The old tradition 
goes that when Buddha was formerly alive in the world, 
Ud ay ana-raja, of Kaul&mbi, made this image. After the 
Nirvana of Buddha it came flying of its own accord to 
the north of this country, and located itself in the city of 
B'o-lo-lO'Jcia (E^ha or Urgha ?) ; after this it again trans- 
ported itself to this place. The saying is, that according 
to tradition, when the religion of S^kya is destroyed, this 
image will enter the Dragon palace. 

Leaving the town of Pi-mo and proceeding eastward, 
we enter the desert of sand and stone. Going 200 li we 
reach the town of Ni-jang?" Eastward of this again is 
the desert of drifting sand, without water or vegetation, 
burning hot, and subject to the evil of poisonous fiends 
and imps. There is no road, and travellers in coming 
and going have only to look for the deserted bones of 
men and cattle as their guide. We have before described 
the arid and toilsome character of this desert journey. 

Again going 100 K or so, we reach the old country of 
Tukh^ra. Six hundred li further on we come to the old 
country of Gh^-mo-i o-na^ which is the same as the M-mo 

1 Pim4, mde Records, ii. 322. 2 j^ecords, ii. p. 324. 

3 Records, ii. 325, n, 75, 


Again going north-east looo li or so we come to the 
old country of N"a-fo-po, which is the same as the territory 
of Leu-lan.i 

From this, after various detours, we arrive at the 
borders of China. Having obtained conveyances the 
Master then sent back to Khotan the messengers and 
their horses and camels. They returned therefore, having 
declined to accept the recompense awarded them for their 

Having reached Sha-chow, he forwarded a memorial 
(to the Emperor). The Emperor was then residing in 
his palace at Lo-yang. On receiving the letter he learned 
that Hiuen-Tsiang was gradually approaching : he then 
commanded Fong-huan-ling, duke of the kingdom of 
Liang, of the titular rank Tso-po-she, who had been left 
as governor of the western capital (Si-gan-fu), to despatch 
proper officers to go forth and conduct {the Master of 
the Law). 

The Master, understanding that the Emperor desired to 
question him as to his fault in leaving the country with- 
out permission, wished to avoid any delay in his arrival, 
and therefore pressed forward on his march with haste, 
and arrived by way of the canal. 

The magistrates not knowing the routine of polite 
reception and escort, were unable to make the necessary 
preparations ; but the news spreading fast, the people 
came together of their own accord in vast numbers to 
behold and pay their homage to the Master. The streets 
were so crowded that when he wished to disembark, he 
could not advance for the crush, and so he passed the 
night on the canal. 

* That is, Slien-slieii* 



Having disembarked, Hinen-Tsiang was escorted to the 
western capital (Si-gan-fu), where he arrived in the 
spring of the year 645 a.d.^ 

On the day following, the members of the various 
monasteries conducted Hiuen-Tsiang^ with flags and 
banners, to the convent called Hong-fu {extensim Jia^ppi- 
ness). He here deposited the treasures he had brought 
from India^ viz. : — • 

1. One hundred and fifty particles of flesh iarhaSy of 
the TathS,gata. 

2. One golden statue of Buddha {according to the 
'pattern of) the shadow left in the Dragon cave of the 
Pragbddhi Mountain in the kingdom of Magadha ; also 
a glittering pedestal 3 ft. 3 in. high. This figure resembles 
the image of Buddha as he is turning the wheel of the 
Law ^ in the deer-park at B^nS^ras. 

3. A sandal-wood figure of Buddha with a shining 
pedestal 3 ft. 5 in. high, after the model of the sandal- 
wood figure made according to the likeness drawn by 
the desire of Ud&yana, king of Kausimbt, when he was 
longing for (the return of) Tathlgata. 

4. A figure of Buddha with a shining pedestal 2 ft 
9 in. high, after the model of the figure of Tath^gata, 

1 The nineteenth year of the period of Ghlng-kwan, 646 A.D. (Mayers). 
2 That is, preaching. 

O 2 


when he descended on the jewelled ladder from the 
heavenly palace to the country of Kapitha. 

5. A silver figure of Buddha with a translucent pedes- 
tal, 4 ft. high, after the model of Buddha delivering the 
Saddharma-ptmdarika and other Sutras on the Ghridrakuta 
Mountain, in Magadha. 

6. A figure of Buddha with a translucent pedestal, 
3 ft. 5 in. high, after the model of the figure of his 
shadow, which he left in the country of Nagarah^ra, in 
the place where he subdued the poisonous dragon. 

7. A sandal- w^ood figure of Buddha with a translucent 
pedestal, i ft. 3 in. high, after the model of a similar 
figure representing Buddha as he went round the city of 
Yai^ali on his work of conversion. 

He also deposited in this temple the books of the 
Great Yehicle, which he had brought from the West, in- 
cluding 224 Sutras,-*^ 192 S^stras,^ 15 works of the Stha- 
vira ^ school, including Sutras, Yinaya, and S^stras ; the 
same number belonging to the Sammatiya school; 22 
works of the same character belonging to the Mahis&saka 
school ; 67 books of the same character belonging to the 
Sarv§.stiv§.din school ; 1 7 works of the same character be- 
longing to the K^^yaptya school; 42 works of the same 
character belonging to the Dharmagupta school ; 3 6 copies 
of the Hetuvidya ^§,stra; 13 copies of the SabdavidyS, 
^&,stra; altogether $20 fascimli, comprising 657 distinct 
volumes, carried upon twenty horses. 

After having visited the chief officers of the western 
capital, the Emperor being at Lo-yang, the Master pro- 

^ Julien has 124. misprint for pih, the number being 

2 Julien (whose copy appears here 192 instead of 92. 
to have been defective) has lun-i-yen^ ^ Julien has throughout his trans- 
where the symbol yen is evidently a lation substituted Sarvdstivddas for 



ceeded to that town, and had an interview with the 
sovereign. He was received with the greatest attention 
in the I-lwan ^ palace. Being seated, the Emperor asked 
him why he had gone from home without consulting 
him. He replied that he had sent three requests for 
permission to leave the country previous to his depar- 
ture ; but having received no answers he was unable 
to restrain his desire, and accordingly left without the 
desired permission. 

After a lengthened conversation, Hiuen-Tsiang having 
declined to accept a secular life, retired to the monastery 
of Hong-fu in Si-gan-fu, and there began his work of 

At the conclusion of the year 647 a.d. he had com- 
pleted the translation of the (i) Bodhisattva-pitaka-Siitra, 
(2) Buddha-bhumi- Sutra, (3) Shatmukhl-dharant, and 

By the end of the year 648 he had completed in all 
fifty-eight books, including the Si-yu-ki (undertaken at 
the Em'peror's express command). 

In the year 649 the Emperor caused Hiuen-Tsiang 
to take up his residence in the Sse-'en Temple.^ Here he 
continued the work of translation until his death. 

In the year 650 A.D. the Emperor T'ai-Tsung died and 
was succeeded by Kao-Tsung. 

Erom this time the Master of the Law devoted himself 
with earnest resolution to the work of translation. He 
rose every morning at dawn of day, and after a slight 
repast devoted four hours to the explanation of the Sacred 
Books. And being in charge of the Mo^nastery he had 
regard to the discipline of the resident monks. 

^ The Palace of ttie Phoenix. 

2 This is the Temple of "Great Benevolence," from which the Chinese 
title of the work we have before us is taken. 


Upwards of lOO disciples daily attended his lectures; 
and notwithstanding his manifold occupations, he showed 
the same energy in his work as he had exhibited from 
the first. He discoursed largely on the various systems 
of the schools and the distinguished Masters of the West, 
so that the princes and ministers who came to listen to 
his discourses, frequently expressed their admiration and 
respect for his eminent talent. 

In the year 652 a.d. the Master of the Law caused 
a pagoda (Feou-to) to be constructed at the southern gate 
of the Hong'fuh temple, in which he finally deposited 
his sacred books and images for safety. The total height 
of this structure was 180 ft. It was built after the 
model of the Indian Stupas, and had five stages — sur- 
mounted by a cupola. In the highest storey on the 
southern side, there was a chamber constructed, in which 
were preserved copies of the two prefaces composed by 
the former Emperor and the Prince Royal, to the volumes 
translated by Hiuen-Tsiang. 

In the year 654 a deputation from the Mah^bddhi 
Temple in Central India visited the Master and conveyed 
to him the assurances of the high esteem in which he 
was held. Hiuen-Tsiang replied, acknowledging the 
honour conferred upon him, and requesting that the books 
he had lost in crossing the Indus might be replaced by 
others from India. 

During the years 655 a.d. and 656 a.d. the Master 
continued the task of translating his books : he suffered 
from an old malady contracted in crossing the mountains 
of India, but by the help of the physicians sent to him 
from the court he partly recovered. In the year 658 
the Master returned from Lo-yang to the western capital, 
in the suite of the Emperor, and took up his residence 


in the newly constructed temple called Si-ming. Here 
he remained until signs of advancing age caused him 
some anxiety lest he should be unable to translate the 
PrajM (pdramitd) works. With the view of entering 
on this task he requested the Emperor's permission to 
retire to the Yuh-fa (gem flower) palace, and there in 
quietness to prepare for this translation. In 659 he 
moved into this palace, and in 660 began the new 
translation. The Indian copy of the Mah§,-prajnS,-pS,ra- 
mitS, Slitra consisted of 200,000 ilohas ; he purposed to 
produce an abridged translation, but was warned by a 
dream not to do so. The Master had procured three 
copies of this work in India, and he at once proceeded 
to collate these with a view to correct the text from 
which he translated. He was now sixty-five years 
of age, and feeling that his end was near he worked 
without interruption in order to finish his task before 
he died. 

He completed his labours in the loth month of the 
year Lung So (661 A.D.). The entire work of the Maha- 
prajM-p&ramitS, Sutra consists of 600 chapters, in 102 

Having declined to undertake the translation of the 
Eatna-kftta Siitra, he composed himself to await his end. 
He had now finished the translation of seventy-four 
distinct works, in 1335 chapters. He had, moreover, 
made a vast number of pictures, and written out with his 
own hands copies of various Stoas. When the recital 
of all these works was finished, he closed his eyes and 
lay perfectly still. Having now repeated some verses 
in adoration of M&.itreya,^ he gradually sank until the 
day of his death, in the lOth month, 13th day, of the 
year 664. 

1 The earnest desire of Hiuen- M^itreya, of course, is the future 
Tsiang was to behold MMtreya and Buddha, and represents the character 
dwell with him in the Tusita heaven, of Love. 


He was buried in the Western capital, but in the 
year 669 his remains were removed by order of the 
Emperor to a space situated to the north of the valley 
of Fan-chuen, where a tower was constructed to his 


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